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Lecture

MicroBioImm Notes.docx


Department
Microbiology and Immunology
Course Code
MICROIMM 2500A/B
Professor
C.Y.Kang

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01/07/2013
Spanish influenza killed over a 100 million people across the globe caused the big dip before 1920
William Stewart’s quote is completely wrong
Higher life expectancy in richer countries
In low income countries many more infectious diseases are in the top 10 mortality causes vs in the high
income countries where it is only “lower respiratory infections” that is in the top 10
Biggest infections in the world. The really successful pathogens in the world are really good at transmitting
themselves to other hosts
Epidemic  still increasing ex. HIV/AIDS
The number of bacteria exceed the number of human cells in our body by atleast 10^10
The core microbiome everybody has them. Typically it is the transient ones that cause diseases but not
always.
Not sugar that causes cavities. It is bacteria that ferment sugar that cause cavities.
In order to get salmonella food poisoning you have consumed a lot because it generally cannot survive in
stomach low ph environment.
Respiratory Tract – missing slide
The nasopharynx may contain important pathogens that exist asymptomatically
The trachea and bronchi have sparse microbiota
Alveoli of the lungs are usually sterile

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01/07/2013
Immunology
No required textbook
Intro to Human Immune System
Immune system
Complicated system, fighting bacteria, etc..
Contact with microorganisms is inevitable
A desk has 100x more germs than the average toilet seat
Microorganisms
Good and bad microorganisms
Good bacteria part of immune system  microbiota
Microbiota
1/10 cells are DNA from parents (human) other 9/10 not
Bacteria comprising microbiota relate to your health
Ex. Depending on microbiota in gut can be related to allergies, diabetes, etc..
Human Microbiome Project
To map every bacteria in body particulary in gut microbiota
In order to associate changes in gut microbiota with diseases/health
Pathogens
Pathogenic microorganisms have potential to cause infectious diseases
Bacteria and virus focused but others are parasite and fungi also
Most diseases caused by pathogenic microorganisms
Opportunistic pathogens
Given opportunity normal microbiota can become pathogenic
Ex. Staph on skin protects us but if it gets inside it can cause issues like pneumonia, cavities,
gastroenteritis, etc..
Extracellular vs Intracellular
Extracellular means pathogen outside host cells

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01/07/2013
Intracellular means pathogen inside host cells ex. Viruses that get inside and replicate
Immune responses are different to extracellular and intracellular pathogens
Different responses based on where it is located
Many pathogens can be both intracellular and extracellular pathogens because they can have an intra and
extra phase.
Ex. Viruses start as extracellular but go inside (intracellular) and then leave the cell so become extracellular
again.
The immune system
Body defense system against pathogens
Thucydides said that for plague no one was attacked a second time fatally
Basically when you encountered a pathogen you create antibodies and are immune to getting attacked by it
a second time
How does immune system work
Recognize pathogen
Eliminate pathogen
Minimize the damage
Microorganisms – (Pathogens)
Replicate and Mutate fast
Difficult for immune system to keep up with sheer number
Get disease or sick when immune system can’t destroy the pathogen
Main defenses of immune system
Cells
Tissue cells
Leukocytes (white blood cells)
Phagocytes and lymphocytes
Soluble Molecules (secreted by activated cells)
4 types
Blood separated by centrifugation
When give blood they centrifuge it and separate the plasma, WBCs & platelets, and RBCs into different
bags
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