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Lecture 1

Microbiology and Immunology 2500A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 1: Tulip Breaking Virus, Polydnavirus, Potyvirus

Microbiology and Immunology
Course Code
Kelly Summers

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Lecture 1:
Impact for society
- technology advancement =>very easy to spread virus around the globe
Where can we find viruses ?
-viruses are everywhere, they infect ALL LIVING THINGS
- ingest viruses daily, ie insect viruses on vegetables
All viruses are not evil
-Polydnaviruses: wasps + caterpillars, symuiogenic relationship
- wasps lay eggs inside a living insect larva=>have integrated polyDNA viral genome and would deposit
polydnavirus virion into the larva when she deposit the eggs=>larva innate system suppresed by virion
-CThTV virus: fungal thermotolerance =>plant thermotolerance
- D.lanuginosum is a plant that grows at over 50 degrees=>cannot grow in hot environment unless
infected by a fungus which cannot grow in hot enviroment unless infected by CthTV virus
-TBV(tulip breaking virus): broken tulips
-a potyvirus thats elongated in shape and affects pigment synthesis=>results in broken tulips
Major concepts in virology
Virus survive:
1. Package genome inside a particle (genome can be DNA/RNA based)
1. Use particle to transfer genome from host to host =spread infection
2. Genome has info that initiates and completes the viral infectious cycle
3. Genome establish themselves in host ensuring long term viral survival (ex HIV: integrate
inside hosts and stays there for long period of time, esp retroviruses)
=Genome Is Key (nothing will ever happen w/out it)
Major concept #2:
1. Viral genomes = obligate molecular parasites=cannot complete the viral infectious cycle
w/out exploiting a suitable host=>can only function after they replicate inside host
1. Viruses must make mRNA that can be translated by host ribosomes =>uses host’s protein
synthesis machinery to make viral proteins
=No Virus Can Translate Proteins From mRNA On Their Own
History of Virology
- have existed for a long time (in the dinosaur age)
-molecular clock sequencing=extract genome and figure out rate of mutation =>allowed for affirmation
-Herpes: documented in ancient greece and romans (banned kissing in public to prevent transmission)
- creepi
-TMV(tobacco mosaic virus): actual experiments
- assumed to be bacteria (back can be filtered)=>crushed infected plants, filter it to get pathogen
=>filtrate cannt grow on its own, rub on a new leaf and can infect again
-”growth” is diff from bacteria which dont require a host + filtration result differs from bac which
are not in filtrate
-first defination of virus = a filterable agent (0.2 micron filter)
- First animal virus:
- discovered as an “agent” causing foot & mouth disease + being filterable
Seeing viruses
- electron microscopy: viruses are extremely small that light microscope cannot see them (exception:
-measles = the most infectious virus there is=highly contagious
-transmitted in aerosols (cough and sneeze)
- obligerated after vaccines introduced
-most viruses that infect us dont cause disease (communication between immune syst defenses: intrinsic, innate
and acquired immunity protects us from viral particles )=>deadly if penetrates the 3 levels of Defense
- human genetic code contains viral genes (sequence integrated into our own)
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