November 16, 2011 - Networks.docx

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Media, Information and Technoculture
Course Code
Media, Information and Technoculture 2500A/B
John Reed

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Networks November 16, 2011 I. Network Technology A. Decentralization: Arpanet B. Standardization: Internet C. Commercialization D. UbiComp: Media Environments II. Network Technique A. Politics B. Surveillance C. Sousveillance III. Network Characteristics A. Flexible B. Interest Based C. Centralized? We are geographically dispersed yet all together at one time. I. Network Technology A. Decentralization and the formation of Arpanet Arpanet: Government approach to decentralized communication example - Sputnik in 1967, cold war created tension between the Russians and Americans - The Cuban Missile Crisis, the late 50s early 60s, we have a few technologies disrupting things for the North Americans; very vulnerable - DARPA – an agency formed (defense advanced research projects agency). DARPA was the response to sputnik. Huge spending on communications and how to come back at the Soviet threat. - The result was ARPANET! A distributed communications network that would be able to withstand a nuclear attack. - Licklider proposes packet switching in 1962 - Packet switching: Breaks up files from one computer, and reassembles itself at the next computer - 1967 we make the move from centralized to a decentralized communications network. - ARPAnet is a series of centralized nodes in a network = decentralized structure - Peers share information equally - Information it starts off on a computer and it is copied and stored, copied and stored while it makes its way across the network - The Internet is a big copy machine - NO ONE is in charge - The network thinks, not the computers or the people that are involved - Always self adjusting itself - Co-presence, you don’t have to be together geographically but only together through the technology - “In a few years, men will be able to communicate more effectively through a network than they can face to face” - Licklider is interested in the technique of the network Terms to understand Node: A node is an end user experience, a hardware and a software, different types of computer systems can be at work MPs: Message processors, the computers that make up the network. Highly standardized that has to follow protocol IMPS: Interface computer network, highly standardized Store and forward: One message processor can be the messenger between one node to another. - You must follow the protocol (MPs) B. Standardization: Internet - A degree of standardization + difference C. Commercialization - Opened up to the public in 1990 - Made the transition from a military foundation, to a distributed autonomous digital standardized communication network that we now use today. - The Internet is a network of networks, a connection of networks that are put together - Other aspects that make up the internet: Email, UseNet, sms, ftp/http - The WWW is one way of accessing info on the internet - Tim Berners Lee D. Ubiquitous Computing - Formulated by Mark Weiser – 1988-1994 - Stop focusing on the technology and just get to the communication - Much similar that we are seeing with cloud computing and streaming - Ubiquitous computing is the opposite of virtual reality - Virtual reality is where people disappear into the screen and have a virtual experience online - Ubiquitous computing, rather than
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