2. Chapter 8-The State -Jan 14.docx

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Media, Information and Technoculture
Course Code
Media, Information and Technoculture 3375F/G
Nigmendra Narain

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Chapter 8 –The State January 14, 2013 State Formation in the West  The modern state was formed through the Peace of Westphalia (1648)  Peace of Westphalia –series of treaties to end the Thirty Years’ War signed by the Holy Roman Emperor o Established a system of sovereign nation-states, each claiming absolute autonomy  Charles Tilly’s Three Features Specific to Nation-States Emerged in the 17 Century o Cultural Homogeneity o Peasant Way of Life o Extensive, Decentralized, but Relatively Uniform Political Structures  Peasants resisted any help from state makers, fuelled by taxation o State makers used taxation to raise revenues to finance their expanding armies  Cyclical dynamic to the process of modern state formation: o The process of state formation required standing armies, which in turn required  o Extracting resources from the population through taxation, which led to  o The emergence of new bureaucracies and administrative innovations (that is, state institutions to manage the new resources), which also led to  o Resistance and rebellions by the subject populations. However. These rebellions were crushed by the ruler’s armies, thus allowing the rulers to  o Extend their control over more and more areas, and hence extract even more resources, thus increasing the power of their armies and of state institutions. War Making and State Making  Cyclical dynamic of state formation also suggests the existence of a causal relationship between war making and state making  Machiavelli, Bodin and Hobbes articulated the concept of sovereignty as indivisible. There can only be one.  John Locke articulated the concepts of individual righ
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