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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B

Week 2 – New and Old Concepts of Managers and Management At least three versions of ‘manage’: Manager – a type of job role, very culturally specific Managing - a broad process – managers, people, staff, etc Management – a philosophy Modern Business Management Mary Parker Follett (1910) – “the art of getting things done through people” Very slanted towards being a manager – a manager does not produce, but produces things through other people Henri Fayol (1916) – Engineer – ‘Managing’ consists of four functions - Planning - Organizing (includes coordinating) - Commanding (later - leading) Lead by example (in front) command from behind. - Controlling His thought process was very linear. You plan, organize, command and then control. You are cute <3 Origins and Meanings of ‘Management’ Before “management” existed, how were things ‘done through people’? Social norms were different and so was the work place. Manus – the hand Maneggiare – horse handling – the relationship between the rider (manager) and horse (worker) the manager is separate from the worker Adam Smith – Economist Frederick Taylor – 1911 – Engineer – ‘Modern Management’ – use of video and photography Videotaped movement and broke it down frame by frame – get efficiency by doing the most in the least amount of movement. Management Theories Changing how we manage can affect business Weber – an inventor 500 years ago, “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” – MA IN stream - Before this, organizations (“business” and society) were organized very differently (reciprocity, house holding, redistribution) Said our think about management came from our thinking of religion. People cared more about living than work before the Protestant work ethic – people work 3 or 4 days a week. The long shadows of Henri Fayol and Frederick Taylor – “founder effects” If management and organization are thought of as “grammar”, what kinds of habits, beliefs, observations and unwritten is it about? Mechanical engineering applied to people is a good way to get stuff done – people are still affected by this thought process Big Theories: Theory X “Scientific/Industrial Management” aka “The Classical Era” - Focus on mechanizing systems rather than motivating people (recapitulated in franchising business model) Look at Tim Hortons or an assembly line. What is important is to separate the manager from the worker – very important distinction – separate the head from the hands (efficiency) – one person’s job is to think and the other twenty people do. Workers get told how to work to keep work quick, thinkers think up the best way to work and then supervise then it gets done “right”. Theory Y “Human Relations School of Management” - New models for managers - New thought about workers and work Managing designed by psychologists not mechanical engineers – people are not cogs in a wheel, but was focused on understanding workers’ needs and abilities. Worker moral, job satisfaction and getting feedback from worker is very important – listen to workers because they have good insight. Also, when people feel valued, they work harder. Collaborative. Theory Z Distinct from Management Text here “Japanese Management” (from an American perspective in the 1980s) People don’t think of work as “my work” or “your work” but as “our work”. Managing, not managers – a group of workers take on managing. Multi skilled workers all took on management functions. What do these differences matter? Think about how we organize a university course from each perspective – what are the strengths and limitations of each model Theory X – Profs find out important things and they tell us. “You could read that, but we could just tell you the bits you need to know”. No discussion – talking is inefficient. If you need to talk/ask about instruction, they’re not clear enough. Maybe assigned seating – standardizing things. Why would you need seminars if profs just gave us information? Multiple choice, standardized testing. Major origin of Theory X was slavery – discipline was a huge part. Theory Y – Seminars are motivated/motivating because we want people to share ideas because people will work better when they’re engaged. Testing – verbal to make it more personal. If the environment is intimidating, p
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