Week 2 – New and Old Concepts of Managers and Management
At least three versions of ‘manage’:
Manager – a type of job role, very culturally specific
Managing - a broad process – managers, people, staff, etc
Management – a philosophy
Modern Business Management
Mary Parker Follett (1910) – “the art of getting things done through people”
Very slanted towards being a manager – a manager does not produce, but produces things
through other people
Henri Fayol (1916) – Engineer – ‘Managing’ consists of four functions
- Organizing (includes coordinating)
- Commanding (later - leading) Lead by example (in front) command from behind.
His thought process was very linear. You plan, organize, command and then control.
You are cute <3
Origins and Meanings of ‘Management’
Before “management” existed, how were things ‘done through people’?
Social norms were different and so was the work place.
Manus – the hand
Maneggiare – horse handling – the relationship between the rider (manager) and horse (worker)
the manager is separate from the worker
Adam Smith – Economist
Frederick Taylor – 1911 – Engineer – ‘Modern Management’ – use of video and photography
Videotaped movement and broke it down frame by frame – get efficiency by doing the most in
the least amount of movement.
Changing how we manage can affect business
Weber – an inventor 500 years ago, “The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism” – MA IN stream
- Before this, organizations (“business” and society) were organized very differently (reciprocity,
house holding, redistribution)
Said our think about management came from our thinking of religion. People cared more about
living than work before the Protestant work ethic – people work 3 or 4 days a week.
The long shadows of Henri Fayol and Frederick Taylor – “founder effects”
If management and organization are thought of as “grammar”, what kinds of habits, beliefs,
observations and unwritten is it about?
Mechanical engineering applied to people is a good way to get stuff done – people are still
affected by this thought process
Big Theories: Theory X
“Scientific/Industrial Management” aka “The Classical Era”
- Focus on mechanizing systems rather than motivating people (recapitulated in franchising
Look at Tim Hortons or an assembly line. What is important is to separate the manager from the
worker – very important distinction – separate the head from the hands (efficiency) – one person’s
job is to think and the other twenty people do. Workers get told how to work to keep work quick,
thinkers think up the best way to work and then supervise then it gets done “right”. Theory Y
“Human Relations School of Management”
- New models for managers
- New thought about workers and work
Managing designed by psychologists not mechanical engineers – people are not cogs in a wheel, but
was focused on understanding workers’ needs and abilities. Worker moral, job satisfaction and
getting feedback from worker is very important – listen to workers because they have good insight.
Also, when people feel valued, they work harder. Collaborative.
Distinct from Management Text here
“Japanese Management” (from an American perspective in the 1980s)
People don’t think of work as “my work” or “your work” but as “our work”. Managing, not
managers – a group of workers take on managing. Multi skilled workers all took on management
What do these differences matter?
Think about how we organize a university course from each perspective – what are the strengths and
limitations of each model
Theory X – Profs find out important things and they tell us. “You could read that, but we could
just tell you the bits you need to know”. No discussion – talking is inefficient. If you need to
talk/ask about instruction, they’re not clear enough. Maybe assigned seating – standardizing
things. Why would you need seminars if profs just gave us information? Multiple choice,
Major origin of Theory X was slavery – discipline was a huge part.
Theory Y – Seminars are motivated/motivating because we want people to share ideas because
people will work better when they’re engaged. Testing – verbal to make it more personal. If the
environment is intimidating, p