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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Professor
Mark Cleveland
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter #4- Expression of Dispositions The Intuitive Assumptions of Consistency -our behvaiors vary from one situation to another -Cross-situational consistency : in behavior that is the individuals consistency across different types of situations (from home to school to work) -Gist of these finding was: child aggressive at home may be less aggressive then most in school The 1968 Challenge -cross-sectional consistency was not 0 however it was much less than has been assumed at the trait level analysis The Paradox Defined Personality Paradox: namely the data from extensive research has low cross-situational consistency of behavior -Long person vs situation debate resulted and persisted for many years The Person Vs Situation Situationism -power of the situation as the main determinant of behavior -situation is so powerful that the individual differences and personality don’t make much difference -Situationism: emphasis on the power of the situational variables belief that personality was less important than the situation -The error is that they systematically neglect the role of the situation and instead invoke personality dispositions as favorite but incorrect explanation of social behavior Fundamental Attribution Error: tendency to focus on dispositions in causal explanations soon was seen as a mistake -Reached a census that the Big Five approximated the basic structure of personality The Role of the Situation -trait level of analysis was mostly devoted to studying the person apart from the situation -field of social psychology was devoted to understanding the general effects of the power of the situation regardless of the individual differences -Error Variance: the person became the error variance (the noise) that had to be removed (in personality psychology- it was seen that the situation was the noise and has to be removed in order to see the personality) -Belief that the person was important but situation was not and vise versa led to this huge debate Incorporating Situations into Traits -Findings of large variations in a persons behavior across situations challenged the goal of personality psychology which is to identify the coherence and atability that underlie individual’s thoughts feelings and behvaiors -On the surface thoughts feelings behaviors may vary -must look beneath the surface and focus on just how the variation occurs what are the external an internal situations that effect it (may be a regular pattern for each individual) If,… Then.. Situation-Behavior -when situation changes so does behavior, but relationship between situation and behvaiors may be stable Signature of personality: reflect some of the essence of personality coherence and promises to provide a route to see the underlying system that gernerates them -the if… then…. Pattersn on situation-behavior relationship that unfold can provide a key to the personality (if they are stable) -found evidence of this in the children that were studied, childrent ended to display stable distinctive patterns of if….then relationships -individuals differ in their in…then strategies and behavior patterns. They will behave within their characteristic in a given type of situation, but they will vary their behavior predictability when the if changes, thus producing behavioral variability across situations -if stable, if…then..situation-behavior patterns are meaningful reflections of one’s personality Gary W’s Behavioral Signatures -emphasizes that both the situation and the person need to be considered when trying to
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