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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Mark Cleveland

Chapter #6- Personality and Lifestyles -Personality: person‟s unique psychological makeup and how it influences the way he or she responds to the environment -life altering moments can change/alter your personality -People act different in diff situations, hard to predict behavior Freud‟s Theory -behavior stems from conflict between gratification and responsibility Id: immediate gratification -Operates according to the pleasure principle: maximize pleasure avoid pain -selfish and illogical Superego: person‟s conscience -How we should behave and social expectations -prevents the id from seeking selfish gratification Ego: mediates between the id and superego -Balances those 2 forces based on reality principle: finds ways to gratify the id that are acceptable to the outside world -These conflicts occur at a unconscious level -Freudian Slip: say one thing mean to say something else (one is usually sexual) Marketing Implications -unconscious motives underlying purchases -His ideas unlock deeper product and ad meanings -symbolism in products to compromise is and superego Ex. Sport car is substitute for sexual gratification for men -Phallic symbols- swords, cigars -Some of Freud‟s theories criticized as pseudo-scientific –Sexist -Based a lot on dream theory Motivational Research -Motivational Research: largely based psychoanalytical interpretations (Freudian) interpretations, with a heavy emphasis on unconscious motives -Relies on In-depth interviews -Uses few consumers, probes deeply into each person‟s purchase motivations -might be several hours -finds out reasons for purchases Ex. Ernest Dichter- developed concept for focus groups -bowling, electric trains, power tools- power -ice cream, beauty products= social acceptance Criticisms: -Researchers feel it lacks validity because it is very bias and subjective -invalid or works too well -to sexually biased Advantages of Motivational Research: -cost efficient -providing insights -Intuitive sense Neo-Freudian Theories -personality is more influences by how they person handled relationships with others -These are called Neo-Freudian (following) Karen Horney -moving towards others (compliant), away from others (detached) against others (aggression) -these 3 types of people prefer different type of products -Compliant-brand name, Detached- tea drinkers, aggression-prefer brands with strong masculine orientation Alder -motivation to overcome inferiority Harry Stack Sullivan -personality evolves to reduce anxiety in social relationships Carl Jung -developed his own method “analytical psychology”- geared away from the sex driver motives -Analytical: emphasized the individual‟s development as a creative person (his or her future) and his or her past -People are shaped by their experiences -collective unconscious: storehouse of memories inherited from our past - archetypes: shared ideas and behavior patterns Ex. Themes such as birth, death, dreams -Ad msges invoke archetypes to link products with underlying meanings Brand Asset Archetypes Sage-peace Matriarch-order Mother Earth- body Queen-being Warrior-ego Jester-spirit Magician-thought Patriarch-belief Angel-dreams Enchantress- soul Actress-feelings Troubadour- joy Shadow Characteristics Hermit Hag Shadow Mother Slave Destroyer Trickster Idiot Addict Shadow Witch Orphan Dictator Sorcerer -Model proposes healthy relationships among archetypes/ unhealthy ones -Healthy person: archetypes overwhelm shadow, unhealthy: shadow prevail over archety[es Trait Theory Traits: identifiable characteristics that define a person Ex. Extroversion, introversion, materialism, self-consciousness, need for cognition, frugality Are you an Innie or an Outie? Inner-Directed -unique sense of self, need for uniqueness -Idiocentrics: having an individual orientation Outtie-Directed -pleasing others/fitting in, power of conformity -allocentrics: having a group orientation Differences Between these Personality Types -Contentment: I higher with financial situations -Health Consciousness: A more likely to avoid foods high in cholesterol, or fat -Food preparation: A love the kitchen, I spend more time preparing meals -Workaholics: I work very hard -Travel and Entertainment: I more interest in other cultures and travelling than As Problems with the Trait Theory -scales are not sufficiently valid or reliable, do not measure what suppose to, results are not stable over time‟ -often developed for specific purposes (mental illnesses) the borrow and applied to general population -Not administered under appropriate conditions -Researchers may use a shot gun approach following up on anything that looks interesting (no thought of scale application) -Traits are only part of the story Brand Personality -1886: Quaker Oats man appeared on boxes of hot cereal -Brand Personality: set of traits people attribute to a product as if it were a person -Brand Equity: extent to which consumers hold strong, favorable and unique associations with the brand -They are willing to pay more for the brand -outsourcing production so they can focus on the brand -extensive research into brand campaigns Brand Characteristics -old fashioned, wholesome, traditional -surprising, lively, “with it” -serious, intelligent, efficient -glamorous, romantic, sexy -rugged, outdoorsy, tough, athletic -packaging and other physical cues create a personality for the product Ex. Pillsbury dough boy Brand personality=brand loyalty Animism: inanimate objects are given qualities that make them somehow alive Types of Animism o Level 1: highest order of animism Spokesperson in ads possession by the soul of the being Brand may be strongly associated with a loved one- my mom and Kraft o Level 2: objects are anthropomorphized, given
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