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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Mark Cleveland

Chapter # 16- Cultural Influences on Consumer Behavior Culture: the values, ethics, rituals, traditions, material objects, or services products or esteemed by the members of a society It includes both abstract ideas such as values and ethic as well as the material objects and services that are produced or values by a group of people Example: automobiles food art sports and clothing Cultures the accumulation of shared meanings rituals norms and traditions among members of society – consumers cultures determines priority she/he attaches to activities and products. Product that provides benefit consistent with members of a culture has a better chance of obtaining acceptance. Relationship between CB and culture is a two way street. - products and services that match priorities of a culture have a better chance of being accepted by a consumers Aspects of Culture Culture is evolving and making old ideas with new ones. Culture consists of three functional areas: 1) Ecology – way a system has adapted to its habitat. Area is shaped by technology ex. Japanese greatly value products that are designed for efficient use of space because of their cramped conditions in that nation. 2) Social Structure – way in which orderly social life is maintained. Includes domestic and political groups which are dominant within the culture ex. Nuclear vs extended family. 3) Ideology – Mental characteristics of people and the way in which the way they relate to the environment and social groups. This area revolves around belief that members of society possess a common world view ie. Share certain ideas about principles of order and fairness ethos a set moral and esthetic principles Although every culture is different 4 dimensions account for much of this variability 1. Power Distance: way in which interpersonal relationships forms when differences in power are perceived: Some cultures (Japan) emphasize strict vertical relationships while others (Canada) stress greater degree of equality and informality 2. Uncertainty Avoidance: degree to which people feel threatened by ambiguous situations and have beliefs and institutions that help them avoid this uncertainty Ex. Organized religions 3. Masculinity/ Femininity: degree to which gender roles are clearly delineated. Traditional societies are more likely to possess explicit rules about the acceptable behaviors of men and women Ex. Who is responsible for certain tasks within the family unit 4. Individualism: extent to which the welfare of the individual versus that of the group is valued. Cultures differ in their emphasis on individualism vs collectivism Collectivist Culture: people subordinate their personal goals to those of a stable in group Individualistic: attach more important to personal goals, and people are more likely to change memberships when the demands of the groups (church workplace) become too costly -Whereas collectivist will stress such values as self-discipline and accepting one’s position in life. People in an individualistic culture emphasize personal enjoyment, excitement, and freedom I: Cana, US, Australia, Great Britain C: Greece, Portugal, Taiwan -Values are general ideas about good and bad goals Norms: flow from values or rule dictating what is right or wrong, acceptable inacceptable Enacted Norms: rules such as go on green, stop at red Crescive Norm: embedded into a culture Some examples o Custom: norm handed down from the past that controls basic behaviors such as division of labor in a household or the practice of a particular ceremony o More: custom with a strong moral overtone. A more often involves a taboo, or forbidden behavior such as incest, cannibalism. Violation of a more often meets with strong punishment from other members of a society o Conventions: are norms regarding the conduct of everyday life. These rules deal with the subtleties of CB including correct way to furnish house wear one’s clothes and host a dinner party -Norms are learned vicariously by observing others Myths and Rituals -every culture develops stories and practices that help its members make sense of the world -our culture associates the number 7 with luck -Ex: Chinese lucky number 8 –bad the Olympics at 8/8/8 @ 8pm -“magic” simplifies our life by giving us easy answers Myths Myth: story containing symbolic elements that expresses the shared emotions and ideals of a culture -Often there is conflict between 2 opposing forces out come serves as a moral guide for people -Provides people with guidelines Myths serve the following 4 interrelated functions in a culture 1. Metaphysical: they help to explain the origins of existence 2. Cosmological: they emphasize that all components of the universe are part of a single picture 3. Sociological: they maintain social order by authorizing a social code to be followed by members of a culture 4. Psychological: they provide models for personal conduct -Binary Opposition: in which 2 opposing ends are represented good vs. evil Mediating Figure: opposing forces resolved by this Myths Abound in Popular Culture -some consumers create there own fairytales -smart marketers help us live out these fairytales Ex. Disney -Monomyth: myth that is common to many cultures Ex. Here who emerges from everyday world with supernatural powers and wins victory over evil Blockbuster movies come from this: Gone with the wind, WT, Star trek Rituals Ritual: set of sy
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