Chapter 17 cb.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Mark Cleveland

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Chapter # 17- The Creation and Diffusion of Culture Creation and Diffusion of Culture: the production and spread of ideas, styles, and products between individuals or from one group to another Cultural Selection: choices are driven by images presented to us in mass media by our observations of those around us and by our desire to live in the fantasy worlds created by marketers -Styles are often rooted in and reflect deeper societal trends -Styles usually originate as an interplay between the deliberate inventions of designers and businesspeople and the spontaneous actions of ordinary consumers -These trends can travel widely between countries and continents Figure 17.1 Figure 17.2 Culture Production Systems Culture Production System (CPS): set of individuals and organizations responsible for creating and marketing a cultural product -the nature of these systems help to determine the types of products that eventually emerge from them Ex. Country music- more similar when only a few are producing, baries when many producers are competing within the market -Components of a CPS 1) Creative subsystems: responsible for generating new symbols or products 2)a managerial subsystem responsible for selecting, making tangible mass producing and managing the distribution of new symbols or products 3) communications subsystem responsible for giving meaning to new products and providing them with symbolic sets of attributes that are communicated to consumers 1)singer 2) company that manufactures and distributes cds 3) ad and publicity agents hired to promote the music -Cultural Gatekeepers -many judges or tastemakers influence the products that are eventually offered to consumers Cultural gatekeepers: filter the overflow of info and material intended for consumers. Include Moe, restaurant and car reviews -We now live in Consumer space: where customers act as partners with companies to decide what the marketplace will offer -More prevalent in high tech industries that routinely invite their most experienced and knowledgeable customers lead users Voice of the Consumer: solicits feedback from end customers well before it puts a new product on the market -Design build a prototype, then get customer feedback High Culture and Popular Culture Art Product: is viewed primarily as an object of aesthetic contemplation without any functional value -Piece of art is original subtle and is associated with elite society Craft Product: ceramic astray hand crafter fishing lure is admired because of the beauty with which it performs some function -craft tends to follow a formula that permit rapid production -elite looks at pure aesthetics High art Vs Low art -marketers often incorporate high art imagery to promote products -they may sponsor artistic events to build public goodwill or feature works of art on shopping bags Cultural Fornulae Cultural Formulae: certain roles and props often consistently Ex, Romance novels are an extreme case of a cultural formulae -Reliance on these formulas lead to a recycling of images a members of the creative subsystem reach back through time for inspiration Reality Engineering Reality Engineering: occurs as elements of popular culture are appropriated by marketers and converted to vehicles for promotional strategies -New Vintage: new ripped jeans -Media images exert significant influence on consumer’s perceptions of reality, affecting viewer’s notions about such issues as dating behavior, racial stereotypes and occupational status Cultivation Hypothesis: which relates to media’s ability to distort consumers’ perceptions of reality have sown that consumers who watch a lot of tv tend to overestimate the degree of affluence in the country -these affects also extend to such areas as perceptions of the amount of violence in a culture Product Placement Product placement: is the insertion of real products in movies, TV shows, books and plays -Many types of products play starring roles in culture Ex. Nike Coca Cola Brand Entertainment: where advertisers showcase their products in longer-form narrative films instead of brief commercials -Pay 25 billion dollars a year to do this -People respond well to placement when the shows plot makes the products benefit clear -familiarity makes these props create a sense of cultural belonging while generating feelings of emotional security -if the product doesn’t fit with the plot of the movie it can make it negative Advergaming Advergaming: where online games merge with interactive advertisements that let companies target specific types of consumers -These placements can be short exposures such as billboards for they can integrate directly into the action Plinking: act of embedding a product or service into a video -so hot? Because people spend much more time gaming The Diffusion of Innovations Innovation: new products and styles constantly enter the market -Occur in both consumer and industrial settings -May take the form of clothing, new manufacturing technique, way to deliver a service -if successful spreads through the population 1 - brought or used by only a few people and then more and more sonsumers decide to adopt it until in some cases it seems tht almost everyone has bought or tried the innovation Diffusion of Innovation: refers to a process whereby a new product, service or idea spreads through a population -the rate at which a product diffuses varies Ex. 10 years after cable, as used by 40% Adopting Innovations -A consumers adoption of an innovation resembles the decision making sequence -person moves from stags of awareness, info search, evaluation, trial and adoption -even within same culture not everyone adopts at the same rate 17-3 types of adopters Innovators: 2.5% population marketers are always interested in marketing to them -brave souls who are always on the lookout for novel developments and will be the 1 to try a new offering -tend to be category specific -tend to take more risks -higher education and income Early Adopters: share many of the same characteristics as innovators but diff is their degree of concern for social acceptance 20% population -read specialty magazines, concrete content and trust, they want facts Types of Innovations Continuous Innovation: modification of an existing product EX. Honey nut cheerios, evolutionary -small changes are made to position the product, ass line of extensions to alleviate boredom Dynamically Continuous Innovation: more pronounced change in an existing product as represented by self focusing cameras in touch phone -these innovations have a modest impact on the way people do things creating some behavioral change Discontinuous Innovation: created major change in the way we live, major innovations such as the airplace the car, the computer and the tv -Changed modern lifestyles Prerequisite for Successful Adoption Compatibility: the innovation should be compatible with consumers lifestyles Ex. When nair tried for men didn’t work not interested in it Trialability: people are more likely to adopt an innovation if they can experiment with it prior to making a commitment to reduce risk Ex. Trial size Complexity: product should be low in complexity -Product that is easier to understand and use will be chosen over a competitor’s Observability: innovations that are easily observable are more likely to spread since this quality makes it more likely that other potential adopters will become aware of tis existenc
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