HRM Chapter 5 notes.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 1021A/B
Maria Ferraro

Chapter 5 Orientation, Training, and Development Introduction Organizations often compete on competencies (the core set of knowledge and expertise that give them an edge over their competitors) Competencies are also known as KSAs (Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities) Intellectual Capital = Human Capital (competencies) + Organizational support that enables human capital to flourish Orientation: Formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs, and their work unit and embedding organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviour Training: The acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform current work Development: The acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform future work or to solve an organizational problem Organization, training, and development play a certain role in enabling, nurturing, and strengthening the human capital in the organization It is critical that organizations approach their orientation, training, and development needs in a systematic way so that there is a clear linkage to the organizations strategic direction The Scope of Orientation, Training, and Development All employees need some type of training and development on an ongoing basis to maintain effective performance or to adjust to new ways of work Training tends to be more focused and oriented toward acquiring skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform current work Development tends to be oriented more toward acquiring skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform future work or to solve an organizational problem Learning refers to an ongoing change in behaviour and thinking which is the ultimate goal of training and development The primary reason that organizations train new employees s to bring their KSAs up to the level required for satisfactory performance Approach to Orientation, Training, and Development The primary goal of OTD is to contribute to the organizations overall goals To make certain that investments in OTD have the maximum impact on individual and organizational performance, a systems approach to training should be used The systems approach involves four phases: 1. Needs Assessment 2. Program Design 3. Training Delivery 4. Evolution of Training Training Needs Training design Training Delivery Assessment Analyze training Pretest trainees Schedule training needs Select training Conduct training Identify training methods Monitor training objectives and Plan training criteria content Evaluation Measure training outcomes Compare outcome to objectives and criteria Systematic Orientation, Training, and Development The model shown above allows organizations to identify what is needed for employee and organizational performance Phase 1: Conducting the Needs Assessment Managers and HR professionals should stay alert to the kinds of training that are needed, where they are needed, who needs the,, and which methods will best deliver increased abilities to employees The needs assessment can occur at: The organizational level (examining the environment and strategy of the company) The task level (reviewing the activities of the work to determine the competencies needed The person level (reviewing which employees need training) A needs assessment can be done by asking (and answering) the following questions: 1. How important is this issue to the success of the organization? If it is important, then proceed to the next three questions. 2. What competencies or knowledge, skills, and abilities do employees need? 3. What competencies or knowledge, skills, and abilities do the employees currently have? 4. What is the gap between the desired (need) and the actual (have)? Once answers are determined, specific action plans can be developed to address the gap Employees increasingly value self-development and personal growth, and with this has come an enormous desire for learning It is important that the supervisor or manager be knowledgeable about the organizations needs, the requirements of the work, and the capabilities of the person in order to assess that training is the right solution Phase 2: Designing the Training Program Once the training needs have been determined, the next step is to design (or buy) appropriate training programs Experts believe that training design should focus on at least four related ideas: 1. Instructional Objectives 2. Trainee Readiness and Motivation 3. Principles of Learning 4. Characteristics of Instructors1) Instructional Objectives As a result of conducting organization, task, and personal analysis, managers will have a more complete picture of the companys training needs They can more formally state the desired outcomes of training through written instructional objectives Instructional Objectives: Desired outcomes of a training program where the skills and knowledge of the company wants people to have and the behaviours employees should acquire and/or change Frequently, managers will seek external resources to design the training program and write the learning objectives 2) Trainee Readiness and Motivation Two preconditions for learning affect the success of those who are to receive training: readiness and motivation Trainee Readiness: Both maturity and experience factors in the trainees background Trainee Motivation: Trainees must recognize the need for new knowledge or skills and they must maintain a desire to learn as training progresses Six strategies can be essential: 1. Use positive reinforcement 2. Eliminate threats and punishment 3. Be flexible 4. Have participants set personal goals 5. Design interesting instruction 6. Break down physical and psychological obstacles to learning 3) Principles of Learning Ultimately, training has to build a bridge between employees a
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