MOS Class Notes.docx

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B

Class 3: Chapters 2, 3, and 4 23/01/2013 4:00:00 PM  What we’ve done so far:  General intro and overview of OB  How the world of work is changing – the reasons, the challenges and how it is affecting the workplace   Chapter 2: Personality and Learning  What is personality?  Patterns of behaviour that determines how an individual reacts and interacts with others  Key word = PATTERNS  Pattern of behaviour that is predictable in like circumstances  Personality determinants: o Heredity o Environment o Situation o Mass media (major influencer)  Some people never really think on their own  Pay attention to what the consistent response is as opposed to their response based on the people / environment around them  Evidence Based management (EBM) Claim #1:  Big 5 personality dimensions can be strong predictors of behaviour: o Linked to OB: each dimension leads to better job performance o Relate to other work behaviours o Related to work motivation & job satisfaction o Related to job search and career success  Evidence based management (EBM) Claim #2:  Locus of Control: o Research showed that people who are high on internal control are more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money, and achieve higher org positions because they engage in careful career planning o Research found people with high internal locus of control seem to perceive less stress, to cope with stress better. o Very healthy to have people around you with high internal locus of control o High internal locus of control = believe that what happens to you is based on your own actions o High external locus of control = believe that what happens to you is based on the environment making it happen that way  EBM Claim #3:  Self-esteem: o Brockner research studies (1988) on behavioural plasticity theory as it relates to self esteem found:  Employees with low self esteem tend to react badly to negative feedback – it lowers their subsequent performance  Employees with low self-esteem tend to be more susceptible to external and social influences…They are more pliable.  Do you have a proactive personality?  Attributes help us predict the kind of behaviour people will exhibit at the workplace  Do these attributes sound like you? o Believe you can change things in your environment o Engage in lots of extra-curricular and service-oriented activities o Strive for major personal accomplishments  Self efficacy:  Brought up in this chapter  LEARNING THEORY:  How do individual employees learn to behave a certain way? o Practical skills:  Knowledge  Technical skills o Interpersonal skills  Communication  Team oriented  Conflict resolved o Intrapersonal skills  Problem solving  Critical thinking  Risk taking o Cultural awareness  Goals  Operations  Priorities  Expectations  Classical conditioning  behaviour can be conditioned o Pavlov’s dog:  1904 russian physiologist  subjects  dogs would salivate whenever assistant entered room  show food  salivary response (reflex)  anticipation of food  salivary response (conditioned behaviour)  SAME RESPONSES! o Skinner’s Box:  19030’s US psychologist  rat in cage learns to “operate” on environment  lever is pushed  rat gets pellet  can be used to increase probability of desired behaviour o these two are practices that can be utilized by managers o danger is that managers can use them incorrectly in the workplace o Managers can make errors using reinforcement:  Do reward ($pay) = neglecting work ethic differences, philosophical diversity or job styles  Neglecting other sources of reinforcement  Positive performance feedback  Positive social recognition o These are things managers need to think of  Money should not be thought of  Exhibit 2.3 – Reinforcement Strategies  Hot stove method: o make the strategy quick, continuous, short, and immediate and efficient in order to reach fast acquisition  Fact of life learning: o Delay of reinforcement  partial and long in order to reach persistence in behaviour (learning mature, independent and empowering behaviour)  Dressing appropriately for a cold day example  Want people to buy into ethics and values of the company over time, example of this method  Reducing Undesirable Behaviour  Skinner’s daughter Deborah  Person learns what not to do, that’s it  Using punishment effectively:  READ PAGES 54-55 IN GREATER DETAIL  Negative reinforcement: the removal of a stimulus that increases or decreases probability of something  Extinction: when it comes to extinguishing behaviour, just don’t reinforce the behaviour at all, just ignore it!  EBM Claim #4:  Social cognitive theory o According to bandura’s research, its not just the environment that is influencing behaviour – people have the cognitive capacity to regulate and control their own thoughts, feelings, motivation and actions (through observational learning, self- efficacy and self-regulation) o We all have the capacity for self efficacy, reliance, determination learning, why we all don’t do it is another question altogether.  Self regulation through:  How do people’s experiences, environments, and behaviours affect how they learn? o Observation o Imitate o Imagination o SELF MONITORING IS NOT THE SAME AS SELF REGULATION  UNDERSTAND THE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE TWO  Organizational Learning Processes a. OB modification (a type of operant learning) b. Employee recognition programs c. Training programs d. Career development Chapter 3: THE CHANGNING WORKPLACE  Racial and ethnic diversity  Gender diversity  Age diversity  Religious diversity  Disabilities diversity EBM Claim #1:  Social identity theory 1. We categorize ourselves and others so as to better understand 2. We form perceptions based on social membership 3. People tend to perceive members of their own social categories in more positive and favourable ways than those who are different and belong to other categories. EBM Claim #2:  Bruners model of perceptual process 1. Perception is selective and efficient (shortcuts can create the potential for gaps) 2. People seek perceptual constancy of target (1 impressions stick) 3. People seek perceptual consistency of others (even to the point of distortion…as long as it fits!)  As human beings, we are innately cognitively biased. Chapter 4: Work Behaviour – Job Satisfaction; Values and attitudes in the workplace  What determine job satisfaction?  Factors of job satisfaction:  Discrepancy (expectations)  cognitive dissonance  Cognitive dissonance: The state of having inconsistent thoughts, beliefs, or attitudes, esp. as relating to behavioral decisions and attitude change.  Fairness  Distributive  equal treatment; fair justice perspective  Procedural  was the process fair?  Interactional  was the opportunity inclusive? Was it well communicated?  Disposition  Choose your attitude  can help contribute to the level of satisfaction you will experience  Mood  Emotions, personal feelings  Other contributors  challenging work? Is the pay good? Opportunity for a career?  EBM Claim #1: o There are consequences of job satisfaction  Absenteeism  people not satisfied, will go up  Turnover  same with turnover  Performance  Organizational citizen behaviour  voluntary informal behaviour that contributes to organizational effectiveness  Aka going above and beyond the job description  Customer satisfaction& profit  Engagement Job Satisfaction: 23/01/2013 4:00:00 PM  Organizational Commitment  Define: o Affective: commitment based on identification and involvement with an organization o Continuance:  occurs when people feel that leaving the organization will result in personal sacrifice, or perceive that good alternative employment is lacking  Increases with the time the employee is with the organization  “golden handshakes”  to leave prematurely is to lose all the things you were promised  too expensive to leave o Normative:  Based on ideology or feeling of obligation to an organization  People with high normative commitment stay with company because they thing that they SHOULD Case Study – City of London:  High absenteeism at city hall  Cost them more in terms of sick leave  Comparison of 2007 and 2010 levels, able to save over 1 million just in initiatives alone.  What the auditor found when they came in in 2008 was that national average of sick leave was 9.7 days / year. o City hall employees were taking over 19 o Absenteeism that comes from people unsatisfied, that basically take time off and don’t feel committed to organization, costs the company shit ton of money.  Auditors came up with initiative o Proactive return to work program  Focused attention on getting people back to work sooner as opposed
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