Lecture 4 Ch.5,6 Jan 27.docx

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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B
Professor
Matt Mc Larnon
Semester
Winter

Description
Organizational Behaviour Lecture 4 Ch. 5,6 January 27, 14 Notes • Exam next week, in class • Ch.1­6 + appendix • 2:30­4:30 • 70 Multiple choice Chapter 5 Theories of Work Motivation • What is Motivation? o It is one of the most traditional topics in organizational behaviour o The extent to which persistent effort is directed toward a goal o The basic characteristics of motivation:  Effort  Persistence  Direction   Goals • Intrinsic Motivation o Motivation that stems from the direct relationship between the worker and  the task and is usually self­applied o Examples include:  Feelings of achievement, accomplishment, challenge, and  competence derived from performing one’s job, and the interest in  the job itself • Extrinsic Motivation o Motivation that stems from the work environment external to the task and  is usually applied by others o Examples include:  Pay, benefits, company policies, and various forms of supervision o Some motivators have both extrinsic and intrinsic qualities • Extrinsic vs. Intrinsic Motivators o Some evidence that the availability of extrinsic motivators can reduce the  intrinsic motivation stemming form the task itself o This appear to occur under very limited conditions and is easily avoidable o Both kinds of rewards are important and compatible in enhancing work  motivation • Theories of Motivation o Need theories are concerned with what motivates workers o Process theories are concerned with exactly how various factors motivate  people o Need and process theories are complementary rather than contradictory o Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs  A five­level hierarchical need theory of motivation that specifies  that the lowest­level unsatisfied need has the greatest motivating  potential. The needs include: • Physiological needs o Necessary for a person to survive • Safety needs o Security/stability • Belongingness needs o Need for social interaction, being related to others,  etc. • Esteem needs o Feelings of confidence, independence (feeling like  you have a place in the world) • Self­actualization needs o Needs that can only be fulfilled once the other have  been fulfilled o Expressing your own talents, skills, emotions, etc. o Feeling as fulfilled as possible o Alderfer’s ERG Theory  Streamlines Maslow’s need classifications and makes some  different assumptions about the relationship between needs and  motivation.  A three level hierarchical need theory of motivation: • Existence o Safety, physiological • Relatedness o Self esteem, belongingness, safety • Growth o Self esteem, self­actualization  Growth  ▯existence = intrinsic  ▯extrinsic  Exhibit 5.3 in text o McClelland’s Theory of Needs  A non­hierarchical need theory of motivation that outlines the  conditions under which certain needs result in particular patterns of  motivation  Needs reflect relatively stable personality characteristics  Concerned with the specific behavioural consequences of three  needs • Achievement  o To succeed • Affiliation o Need to establish and maintain interpersonal  relationships (friends, family) • Power o Make an impression on others, impact o Self Determination Theory  A theory of motivation that considers whether individuals’  motivation is autonomous or controlled.  Need for affiliation • Individual’s need to associate and interact with others  Need for competence • Individuals need to feel like they are good at something  Need for autonomy • Individual’s need to have free will  These are strong motivational forces • Process Theories of Work Motivation o Motivation theories that specify the details of how motivation works o Expectancy Theory  A process theory that states that motivation is determined by the  outcomes that people expect to occur as a result of their actions on  the job  The basic components of Vroom’s expectancy theory are: • Outcomes • Instrumentality • Valence • Expectancy o How likely you can achieve a goal given a certain  amount of effort • Force o Relative degree of effort  Exhibit 5.4 in text  Managerial Implications of Expectancy Theory • The motivational implications of expectancy theory involve  “juggling the numbers” that individuals attach to  expectancies, instrumentalities, and valences • Three implications: o Boost expectancies o Clarify reward contingencies o Appreciate diverse needs o Equity Theory  Equity theory explains people’s job satisfaction through a  comparison process of inputs and outcomes.   People want their ratio of inputs and outcomes to be similar to  those of comparative others • The “norm of equity”  Research Support for Equity Theory • Research supports the theory when inequity occurs because  of underpayment o When workers are underpaid on an hourly basis,  they tend to lower their inputs by producing less  work • The theory’s predictions regarding overpayment inequity  have received les support o Suggests that people tolerate overpayment more  than underpayment or they use perceptual  distortion to reduce overpayment inequity  Equity Sensitivity • Research has also demonstrated that not all people adhere  to the “norm” of equity • Some people are more outcome focused o Entitled • Some people are more input focused o Benevolents • Those that adhere to the norm o Equity sensitives   Managerial Implications of Equity Theory • Perceived underpayment will have a variety of negative  motivational consequences for the organization (e.g., low  productivity, low quality, theft) • Understand that feelings about equity stem from a  perceptual social comparison process • Understanding the role of comparison people is especially  crucial o Goal Setting  A goal is the object or aim of an action.  Personal performance goals are vague or nonexistent for many  organizational members.  Research has demonstrated when and how goal setting can be  effective   Goals are effective when they are: • Specific • Challenging • Committed • Feedback • SMART o Look up what it stands for  Why are goals motivational? • Four mechanisms explain why goals are motivational: o They direct attention toward goal­relevant activities o They lead to greater effort o They increase and prolong persistence o They lead to the discovery and use of task relevant  strategies for goal attainment  Goal Orientation • Goal orientation refers to an individual’s goal preferences  in achievement situations • A stable individual difference that affects performance • Three Goal orientations: o Learning goal orientation  Also called mastery goal orientation  Achieved by learning new skills, mastering  how to approach new situations, becoming a  master of a particular domain o Performance­prove goal orientation  To obtain a favorable judgment from  another person o Performance­avoid goal orientation  Setting goals to avoid negative judgment   Managerial Implications of Goal Setting Theory • Managers should set specific and challenging goals and  provide ongoing feedback to employees so they can  compare their performance with the goal • The performance impact of specific, challenging goals is  stronger for simpler jobs than for more complex jobs • When a task is novel or complex and individuals need to 
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