Chapter 8 Review.docx

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B

Chapter 8Social Influence Socialization and Culture Social Infuence In many social settings and especially in groups people are highly dependent on others This dependence sets the stage for influence to occur Two kinds of dependence are information dependence and effect dependence Information Dependence refers to Reliance on others for information about how to think feel and act Information dependence gives others the opportunity to influence our thoughts feelings and actions via the signals they send to us The effects of social information can be very strong often exerting as much or more influence over others as objective reality Effect Dependence refers to reliance on others due to their capacity to provide rewards and punishment The group frequently has a vested interest in how individual members think and act Group members desire the approval of the group One of the most obvious consequences of information and effect dependence is the tendency for group members to conform to the social norms that have been established by the group The motives for social conformity vary across situations and can be classified as follows Compliance Conformity to a social norm prompted by the desire to acquire rewards or avoid punishment Compliance is the simplest most direct motive for conformity to group norms It primarily involves effect dependence Identification Conformity to a social norm prompted by perceptions that those who promote the norm are attractive or similar to oneself Information dependence is especially important An imitation process is involved in which established members serve as models for the behaviour of others Internalization Conformity to a social norm prompted by true acceptance of the beliefs values and attitudes that underlie the norm Conformity occurs because it is seen as right Conformity is due to internal rather than external forces Simple compliance can set the stage for more complete involvement with organizational norms and roles The process through which this occurs in organizations is known as organizational socializationOrganization Socialization Socialization is the process by which people learn the attitudes knowledge and behaviours that are necessary to function in a group or organization It is a learning process in which new members must acquire knowledge change their attitudes and perform new behaviours It is the primary means by which organizations communicate the organizations culture and values to new members Socialization methods influence immediate or proximal outcomes which lead to more distal or longerterm outcomes Learning during socialization involves four main content areas or domains of learning task role work group and organization An important objective of organizational socialization is for newcomers to achieve a good fit Personjob PJ fit refers to the match between an employees knowledge skills and abilities and the requirements of a job Personorganization PO fit refers to the match between an employees personal values and the values of an organization PJ and PO fit are strongly influenced by the socialization process and are related to job attitudes and behaviours
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