Management and Organizational Studies 2275A/B KEY TERM.pdf

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Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course
Management and Organizational Studies 2275A/B
Professor
Terry Biggs
Semester
Winter

Description
Business'Law'Key'Terms'and'Summary' Chapter'2'Introduction'to'the'Legal'System' Key'Terms' Bill:!the!form!in!which!legislation!is!introduced!into!Parliament!or!legislature. ! Common'law'courts:!the!three!historical!English!courts!(Court!of!Common!Pleas,!the!Court!of!King’s! Bench,!and!the!Exchequer!Court),!where!in!theory!law!was!discovered!in!the!customs!and!traditions!of! the!people.! Court'of'Chancery:!court!developed!as!a!supplement!to!the!comm on!law!courts;!sometimes!referred!to! as!the!court!of!Equity! Civil'law:!the!legal!system!used!in!most!of!Europe!based!on!a!central!code,!which!is!a!list!of!rules!stated! as!broad!principles!of!law!that!judges!apply!to!the!cases!that!come!before!them. ! Distinguishing'the'facts:!the!process!judges!use!to!decide!which!case!is!the!binding!precedent;!involves! comparing!the!facts!relevant!to!the!issues!being!determined ! Equality'rights:!basic!rights,!enumerated!in!the!Canadian!Charter!of!Rights!and!Freedoms,!includin g!the! right!not!to!be!discriminated!against!on!the!basis!of!grounds!such!as!gender,!age,!religion,!race,!or! colour,!and!the!guarantee!of!equal!benefit!of!and!protection!by!the!law ! Fundamental'freedoms:!basic!rights,!enumerated!in!the!Canadian!Charter!of!Ri ghts!and!Freedoms,! including!freedom!of!conscience!and!religion,!of!thought!and!belief,!of!opinion!and!expression,!and!of! assembly!and!association.! Law'merchant:!laws!developed!by!the!merchant!guilds!and!source!of!common!law!relating!to!negotiable! instruments!such!as!cheques!and!promissory!notes ! Law'of'equity:!the!system!of!law!developed!by!the!Court!of!Chancery ! Legal'rights:!basic!rights,!enumerated!in!the!Canadian!Charter!of!Rights!and!Freedoms,!such!as!the!right! to!life,!liberty,!and!security!of!the!pers on;!and!security!against!unreasonable!search!and!seizure,!or! arbitrary!imprisonment!or!detention. ! Procedural'law:!law!determining!how!the!substantive!laws!will!be!enforced,!for!example,!the!rules! governing!arrest!and!criminal!investigation,!pre Htrial!and!court!processes!in!both!criminal!and!civil!cases ! Public'law:!the!public!good;!law!concerning!the!government!and!individuals’!relationship!with!it,! including!criminal!law!and!the!regulations!created!by!government!agencies. ! Private'law:!the!rules!that!govern!our!personal,!social,!and!business!relations,!which!are!enforced!by! one!person’s!suing!another!in!a!private!or!civil!action. ! Paramountcy:!principle!that!when!a!matter!is!addressed!by!both!valid!federal!and!provincial!legislation! and!there!is!a!conflict,!th e!federal!legislation!takes!precedence. ! Royal'Assent:!the!final!approval!of!the!representative!of!the!British!Crown,!by!which!a!bill!becomes!law! in!Canada! Roman'civil'law:!law!of!the!Roman!Empire,!from!which!the!common!law!drew!its!concepts!of!property! and!possessions! Rule'of'law:!unwritten!convention!inherited!from!Britain!which!recognizes!that!although!Parliament!is! supreme!and!can!create!any!law!considered!appropriate,!citizens!are!protected!from!the!arbitrary! actions!of!the!government. ! Substantive'law:!law!establishing!both!the!rights!an!individual!has!in!society!and!also!the!limits!on!her! conduct.! Ultra'vires:!beyond!the!jurisdiction,!power,!or!authority!of!a!decision!maker. ! Summary' A!workable!definition! H Law!is!the!body!of!rules,!made!by!governments!th at!can!be!enforced!by!courts!or!government! agencies! Categories!of!law! H Substantive!law!governs!behaviour ! H Procedural!law!regulates!enforcement!processes ! H Public!law!comprises!constitutional,!criminal,!and!administrative!laws ! H Private!law!involves!on!person’s! suing!another! Origins!of!law! H Codes!in!civil!law!jurisdictions ! H JudgeHmade!laws!and!precedents!in!common!law!jurisdiction ! Sources!of!law! H Common!law! H Equity!from!chancery!courts ! H StatutesH!legislation!of!federal!and!provincial!governments ! Constitution!of!Canada ! H Constitution!Act,!1867!(BNA!Act) ! H Conventions!and!traditions!of!Britain ! H Constitution!Act,!1982 ! H Canadian!!Charter!of!Rights!and!Freedoms ! Constitution!Act,!1867 ! H Divides!power!between!federal!and!provincial!governments ! H Powers!can!be!indirectly!delegated!to!ot her!levels!of!government ! Legislative!powers! H Set!out!in!constitution!Act,!1867!sections!91!and!92 ! H Courts!interpret!and!apply!statutes ! Charter! H All!legislation!must!be!compliant!with!charter ! H Applies!to!relationships!with!government ! H Limited!by!sections!1!and!3 3! Human!rights! H FederalH!provides!protection!against!abuses!by!business!within!federal!jurisdiction ! H ProvincialH!protects!individuals!in!private!relationships ! Chapter'3'The'resolution'of'Disputes' Key'Terms' Accounting:!courtHordered!determination!of!the!injuries!suffered;!agent!must!pay!over!money!or! property!collected!on!behalf!of!principal;!court!order!that!any!profits!made!from!wrongdoing!be!paid! over!to!victim.! Appearance:!document!filed!by!the!defendant!indicating! that!the!action!will!be!disputed.! Affidavit:!evidence!based!on!written!statements!made!by!witnesses!out!of!court!but!under!oath.! ! Administrative'tribunals: !government!decision!makers!(committees,!commissions,!tribunals,!or! individuals)!who!act!with!quasiHjudicial!powers! Abuse'of'power:!action!by!a!tribunal!beyond!the!jurisdiction!set!out!in!the!legislation!governing!it,!or! making!an!unreasonable!decision. ! Arbitration:!submission!of!parties!in!a!dispute!to!having!a!panel!or!other!third!party!make!a!binding! decision!on!their!claims. ! Bias:!prejudice!against!or!partiality!towards!one!party,!for!example,!based!on!a!decision!maker’s! personal!interest!in!the!decision. ! Counterclaim:!a!statement!of!claim!by!the!defendant!alleging!that!the!plaintiff!is!responsible!for!the! losses!suffered!and!claiming!back!against!the!plaintiff!for!those!losses ! Damages:!monetary!compensation!to!victim ! Discovery:!preHtrial!disclosure!of!information,!consisting!of!discovery!of!documents!(records)!and! examination!for!discovery ! Declaration:!official!statement!by!the!court!on!the!law!applicable!to!a!particular!case,!as!an!outcome!of! a!trial! Declaratory'judgement: !declaration!by!the!court!as!to!what!the! law!is!in!any!matter!brought!before!it.! Exemplary'damages:!damages!in!excess!of!plaintiff’s!actual!losses,!intended!to!punish!the!wrongdoer! for!outrageous!or!extreme!behaviour;!also!known!as!punitive!damages ! Examination'in'aid'of'execution :!courtHordered!review!of!judgement!debtor’s!finances!to!arrange!for! payment!of!the!judgement. ! Error'of'law:!a!decision!maker’s!incorrectly!stating!the!legal!interpretation!or!effect!of!the!statute!or! common!law! General'damages:!compensation!for!future!pecuniary!losses!and !incalculable!losses!such!as!pain!and! suffering! Garnishment:!court!orders!that!monies!owed!to!the!judgement!debtor!by!third!parties!are!paid!into! court!and!applied!towards!judgement!debts;!a!portion!of!the!defendant’s!wages!may!be!so!directed!to! payment!of!the!judgement.! InLcamera'hearing:!part!of!trial!proceedings!closed!to!the!public ! Interpretation'statute:!statute!terms!that!direct!the!court!to!interpret!legislation!in!specific!ways ! Injunction:!court!order!to!stop!offending!conduct ! Judgement'debtor:!person!ordered!by!court!to!pay!damages!or!costs ! Judgement'creditor:!person!to!who!court!awards!damages!or!costs ! Limitation'period:!rules!requiring!that!legal!action!be!undertaken!within!a!specified!time!from!when!the! offending!conduct!occurs ! Mandamus:!a!court!order!directing!that!a!specific!act!be!performed ! Negotiation:!direct!communication!between!the!parties!to!a!dispute!in!an!effort!to!resolve!the!problems! without!thirdHparty!intervention;!transferring!negotiable!instruments!to!third!parties. ! Offer'to'settle:!a!formal!offer!by!wither!party!to!modify!or!compromise!its!claim!in!order!to!settle!the! matter!before!trial,!refusal!of!which!offer!may!affect!costs. ! Privative'clauses:!terms!in!a!statute!that!attempt!to!restrict!the!right!of!judicial!review ! Principles'of'fundamental'justice: !principles!set!by!tradition!and!convention!that!protect!the!right!to!a! fair!hearing!by!an!impartial!decision!maker!acting!in!good!faith!to!implement!a!valid!law. ! Procedural'fairness:!rules!of!natural!justice!that!a!hearing!must !follow! Prohibition:!an!order!not!to!proceed!with!a!hearing!or!other!administrative!process ! Probate'courts:!specialized!courts!dealing!with!wills!and!estates;!also!known!as!surrogate!courts ! Pleadings:!the!documents!used!to!initiate!a!civil!action,!including!the!statement!of!claim,!the!statement! of!defence!and!counterclaim,!and!any!clarification!associated!with!them. ! Party'and'party'costs:!court!costs!determined!by!a!tariff!establishing!what!opposing!pa rties!in!a!civil! action!ought!to!pay! Punitive:!damages!in!excess!of!plaintiff’s!actual!losses,!intended!to!punish!the!wrongdoer!for! outrageous!or!extreme!behaviour;!also!known!as!exemplary!damages. ! Preferred'creditors:!creditors!who,!by!legislation,!must!b e!paid!before!other!unsecured!creditors. ! Rules'of'evidences:!rules!governing!the!kind!of!evidence!that!will!be!accepted!by!the!courts ! Rules!of!natural!justice: !basic!standards!of!procedural!fairness ! Seizure:!!court!authorizes!property!of!the!defendant!to!b e!seized!and!sold!to!satisfy!the!judgement ! Secured'creditors:!a!creditor!who!has!claim!on!property!of!the!debtor,!!giving!priority!over!other! creditors.! Special'damages:!monetary!compensation!awarded!by!court!to!cover!actual!expenses!and!calculable! preHtrial!losses! Statement'of'claim:!the!document!setting!out!the!nature!of!complaint!and!facts!alleged!forming!the! basis!of!the!action! Statement'of'defence:!response!by!the!defendant!to!a!statement!of!claim ! Surrogate'courts:!!specialized!courts!dealing!with!will s!and!estates;!also!known!as!probate!courts. ! Sentencing'circles:!meetings!to!suggest!sentences!in!case!involving!Aboriginal!offenders!and!victims ! Solicitor'and'client'costs:!costs!based!on!what!a!lawyer!out!to!actually!charge!his!client ! Specific'performance:!!order!by!a!court!to!a!breaching!party!that!it!live!up!to!the!terms!of!an!agreement ! Writ'of'summons: !the!written!judicial!order!by!which!legal!actions!are!commenced!in!some!jurisdictions ! Without'prejudice: !!words!that,!when!used!during!negotiation,!are! declarations!that!concessions,! compromises,!and!admissions!made!by!a!party!cannot!be!used!against!that!party!in!subsequent! litigation.! Summary' The!courts! H Procedural!rules!govern!structure!and!function,!which!may!vary!with!jurisdiction ! H Open!to!the!public,!w ith!some!exceptions! H Both!criminal!and!civil!functions!at!trial!and!appellate!levels ! H All!but!lowerHlevel!provincial!court!judges!are!appointed!by!federal!government ! Provincial!courts! H Handle!less!serious!criminal!offences,!civil!matters!under!a!set!amount,! custody!and! maintenance!in!family!division,!youth!offenders ! Superior!courts! H Handle!serious!criminal!offences,!civil!matters!with!unlimited!monetary!jurisdiction,!divorce ! Appellate!courts! H Deal!with!appeals!of!law!from!trial!courts,!usually!have!three!judges ,!do!not!rehear!the!facts,! usually!hold!final!hearing!for!mist!criminal!and!civil!matters ! Federal!courts! H !Tax!court!hears!cases!involving!federal!tax!matters ! H Federal!court!hears!disputes!within!federal!jurisdiction!and!appeals!from!some!administrative! tribunals! H Federal!court!of!appeal!hears!appeals!from!Federal!Court,!Tax!Court,!and!some!administrative! tribunals! Supreme!court!of!Canada! H HighestHlevel!appeal!court! H Deals!primarily!with!Constitutional!and!Charter!matters,!as!well!as!cases!of!national!importance ! Process!of!civil!litigation ! PreHtrial! H Plaintiff!files!write!of!summons!(if!required)!and!statement!of!claim ! H Defendant!responds!with!appearance!(if!required)!and!statement!of!defence ! H Discovery!of!documents!and!questioning!of!parties!by!opposing!counsel ! H Payment!into!court!or!offer!of!settlement!to!encourage!settlement ! Trial! H Examination!of!witnesses!and!presentation!of!evidence ! Judgement! H Jury!decides!questions!of!fact! H Judge!decides!questions!of!law! H Loser!usually!pays!some!legal!costs ! Remedies! H DamagesH!general,!special,!punitive! H Accounting,!injunction,!specific!performance,!declaration ! Enforcement! H Examination!in!aid!of!execution ! H Seizure!of!property! H Garnishment! Limitation!periods! H Set!by!statute! Dealing!with!regulatory!bodies ! H !Decisions!of!government!burea ucrats!are!reviewable!by!the!courts ! Administrative!tribunals ! H Enforce!government!policies!and!resolve!dispute ! H Act!within!the!jurisdiction!granted!by!the!enabling!statute ! H Comply!with!the!Charter!of!Rights!and!Freedoms ! H Maintain!a!minimum!standard!of!procedura l!fairness! Rules!of!natural!justice!require ! H Fair!hearing!with!adequate!notice ! H Decision!made!by!person!who!heard!the!evidence ! H Absence!of!bias!in!process ! Role!of!the!courts! H Courts!can!review!administrative!decisions!when!the!administrative!tribunal!did!not!h ave! jurisdiction!or!did!not!follow!the!rule!of!natural!justice! ! H Can!issue!prerogative!writs!including!certiorari,!mandamus,!and!prohibition ! H Can!make!a!declaration!or!order!an!injunction ! H Privative!clauses!are!statutory!provisions!that!attempt!to!prevent!jud icial!review,!which! sometimes!are!resisted!by!the!courts. ! Alternative!dispute!resolution!(ADR) ! H Recent!trend!to!avoid!costs!and!delays!associated!with!litigation ! Advantages! H Control,!timeliness,!productivity,!cost,!privacy,!good!will,!flexibility ! Disadvantages! H Unpredictable,!no!precedents!set,!cannot!deal!with!complex!legal!problems ! H Must!be!voluntary,!must!have!a!balance!of!power!between!the!parties ! H Parties!must!cooperate!to!ensure!!agreement!and!resolution ! Methods! H NegotiationH!direct!discussion!between!parties! H MediationH!neutral!third!party!facilitates!discussion ! H ArbitrationH!neutral!expert!makes!a!binding!decision ! Chapter'4'Intentional'Torts' Definition:' Assault:!a!verbal!or!physical!threat;!an!action!that!makes!a!person!fear!physical!interference ! Absolute'privilege:!exemption!from!liability!for!defamatory!statements!made!in!some!settings!(such!as! legislatures!and!courts),!without!reference!to!the!speaker’s!motives!or!the!truth!or!falsity!of!the! statement! Battery:!unwelcome!physical!contact;!non Hconsensual!physical!interference!with!one’s!body ! Breach'of'contract:!failure!to!live!up!to!the!conditions!of!a!contract ! Crimes:!wrongs!that!affect!society!as!a!whole!and!are!punishable!by!the!state. ! Consent:!permission!or!assent!to!conduct!that!would!otherwis e!constitute!a!tort!such!as!assault!and! battery;!can!be!expressed!or!implied;!an!informed!consent!constitutes!a!defence!to!torts!such!as!assault! and!battery! Continuing'trespass:!permanent!incursion!onto!the!property!of!another ! Conspiracy'to'injure:!coordinated!action!of!two!or!more!persons!using!illegal!methods!to!harm!the! business!or!other!interests!of!another ! Conversion:!intentional!appropriation!of!the!goods!of!another!person ! Confidential'information: !private!information,!the!disclosure!of!which!would!be !injurious!to!a!business;! a!type!of!intellectual!property ! Defamation:!a!false!statement!published!to!a!person’s!detriment ! Deceit:!the!fraudulent!and!intentional!misleading!of!another!person,!causing!injury ! Detenue:!wrongful!retention!of!goods!legally!obtai ned!buy!subsequently!not!returned!in!response!to!a! proper!request!! False'imprisonment:!holding!people!against!their!will!and!without!lawful!authority ! Fair'comment:!defence!available!when!defamatory!statements!are!made!about!public!figures!or!work! put!before!the!public! Interference'with'economic'relations:!a!tort!consisting!of!unlawful!competitive!practices!such!as! inducing!breach!of!contract! Inducing'breach'of'contract:!encouraging!someone!to!break!her!contract!with!another ! Intimidation:!a!threat!to!perform!an!illegal!act,!used!to!force!a!party!to!act!against!9its!own!interest ! Injurious'falsehood:!defamation!with!respect!to!another’s!product!or!business;!also!known!as!product! defamation!or!trade!slander ! Intentional'infliction'of'mental'suffering:!a!tort!constituted!by!harassment!or!prank!causing!nervous! shock! Justification:!legal!authority!and!scope!of!power;!the!Constitution'Act'(1867)!delegated!responsibility!for! matters!to!federal!or!provincial!governments,!thus!giving!them!distinct!jur isdiction!to!create!laws!in! those!areas! Libel:!the!written!o!more!permanent!form!of!a!defamatory!statement ! Malicious'prosecution: !a!tort!action!based!on!criminal!or!quasi Hcriminal!prosecution!motivated!by!ill!will! towards!the!accused!and!lacking!reasonable !evidential!grounds!for!proceedings ! Private'Nuisance:!the!use!of!property!in!such!a!way!that!it!interfere!with!a!neighbour’s!enjoyment!of!his! or!hers! Public'nuisance:!unreasonable!interference!with!public!property ! PassingLoff:!the!tort!of!misleading!the!public!about!the!identity!of!a!business!or!product ! Product'defamation:!defamation!with!respect!to!another’s!product;!also!known!as!injurious!falsehood! or!trade!slander! Privacy:!the!right!to!be!let!alone,!to!protect!private!personal!information,!and!to!be!fre e!of!physical! intrusion,!surveillance,!and!misuse!of!an!image!or!name ! Qualified'privilege: !exemption!from!liability!for!defamatory!statements!made!pursuant!to!a!duty!or! special!interest,!so!long!as!the!statement!was!made!honestly!and!without!malice,!and!wa s!circulated! only!to!those!having!a!right!to!know ! Slander:!spoken!defamation! SelfLdefence:!the!right!to!respond!to!an!assault!with!as!much!force!as!is!reasonable!in!the!circumstances ! Truth:!accuracy!of!a!statement,!applied!as!a!defence!to!a!defamation!action;!also!known!as!the!defence! of!justification! Tort:!an!action!that!causes!harm!or!injury!to!another!person ! Trespass'to'chattels:!direct!intentional!interference!causing!damage!to!the!goods !of!another! Trespass'to'person:!intentional!physical!interference!with!another!person;!also!known!as!assault!and! battery! Trade'slander:!defamation!with!respect!to!another’s!product!or!business;!also!known!as!injurious! falsehood!or!product!defamation! Vicarious'liability:!liability!of!an!employer!for!injuries!caused!by!employees!while!carrying!out!their! employment!duties! Summary' Intentional'torts' H Assault!and!batteryH!defences!are!consent!of!self Hdefence!(reasonable!force) ! H TrespassH!Temporary!or!permanent!intr usion!on!someone!else’s!property ! H False!imprisonmentH!Restraint!of!a!person!by!someone!without!authority ! H Private!nuisanceH!unusual!use!of!property!interfering!foreseeably!with!neighbour ! H DefamationH!a!false,!published!statement!that!discredits!a!person ! o Libel!is!written!defamation;!slander!is!spoken! o DefencesH!absolute!privilege,!qualified!privilege,!truth,!and!fair!comment ! Other'business'torts ' H Inducing!breach!of!contract' H Intimidation' H Deceit' H Conspiracy' H Malicious!prosecution ! H Conversion!! H Trespass!to!chattels! H PassingHoff! H Disclosure!of!confidential!information ! H Injurious!falsehood! Online'torts' H Problems!with!who!is!liable!and!enforcement ! H Problems!with!jurisdiction ! Invasion'of'privacy' H Business!requirements! H Use!of!encryption! H Surveillance!techniques! Torts:'The'required'ingredients' Assault! H Deliberate!threat!creating!fear!of! imminent!harm! H No!consent! Battery! H Deliberate!physical!interference!(contact)! with!one’s!body! H No!consent! Trespass!to!land! H Deliberate!interference!with!property ! H No!consent/!permission/!lawful!right!to!be ! there! False!imprisonment! H Deliberate!restraint ! H No!lawful!authority! Private!Nuisance! H Unusual!use!of!property ! H Interference!caused!to!neighbour’s! enjoyment/!use!of!property ! H Foreseeable!consequences! Defamation! H False!statements!made! H Derogatory!to!the!plaintiff’s!reputation ! H Publication!or!communication!to!a!third! party! ! Chapter'5'Negligence,'Professional'Liability'and'Insurance' Definition' Adjusters:'employees!or!representatives!of!the!insurance!corporation!charged!with!investigating!and! settling!insurance!claims!against!the!corporation!after!the!insured Hagainst!event!takes!place ! But'for'test:'a!test!for!causation!used!in!negligence!actions!to!determine!whether!the!injury!would!have! occurred!had!it!not!been!for!the!act!of!the!defendant ! Breach'of'trust:'misuse!of!property!held!in!trust!for!another!by!a!trustee ! Builder’s'risk'policy:' insurance!against!liability!and!other!forms!of!loss!taking!place!during!the! construction!process! Circumstantial'evidence:' facts!or!evidence!that!lead!one!to!infer!the!existence !of!other!facts! Contributory'negligence:' a!failure!to!take!reasonable!care,!which!contributes!to!the!injury,!complained! of!! Comprehensive'policies:' property!insurance!covering!all!losses!not!specifically!excluded ! CoLinsurance:!!clauses!requirements!that!the!insured!bear!some!risk! Crumbling'skull'rule:!principle!of!torts!that!the!defendant!is!not!responsible!for!an!inevitable!loss!by! plaintiff;!used!in!conjunction!with!thin!skull!rule ! Contra'proferentum:!rule!interpreting!ambiguities!in!an!insurance!policy !in!favour!of!the!insured! Fiduciary'duty:!a!duty!to!act!in!the!best!interest!of!another;!such!duty!may!arise!between!directors!and! officers!and!the!corporation!they!serve,!between!business!associates!including!senior!employees!and! their!employer,!between!agents!and!their!principals,!and!between!partners0 ! Fraud:!the!tort!of!intentionally!or!recklessly!misleading!another!person,!or!making!statements!without! belief!in!their!truth! Fair'hearing:!a!hearing!conducted!in!accordance!with!the!rules!of!procedural!fair ness;!person!affected! negatively!by!a!decision!has!a!right!to!receive!proper!and!timely!notice!of!all!the!matters!affecting!the! case!and!be!given!a!chance!to!put!forward!her!side ! Fidelity'bond:!employer’s!insurance!against!an!employee’s!wrongful!conduct ! Forfeiture'rule:!principle!that!a!criminal!should!not!be!permitted!to!profit!from!a!crime ! Invitee:!a!person!coming!on!a!property!for!a!business!purpose ! Insurable'interest:!a!real!and!substantial!interest!in!specific!property!or!in!someone’s!life0 ! Insurance'agents:!person!acting!on!behalf!of!insurer!to!handle!policies ! Last'clear'chance'doctrine:!!largely!outdated!principle!of!torts!that!the!last!person!capable!of!avoiding! an!accident!is!wholly!responsible! ! Licensee:!a!nonHexclusive!right!to!use!property;!revo cable!permission!to!use!another’s!land ! Liability'insurance:!insurance!covering!loss!caused!by!the!negligence!of!oneself!or!one’s!employees ! Misfeasance:!wrongful!conduct! Nonfeasance:!failure!to!act;!such!failure!is!actionable!in!tort!only!where!there!is!a!s pecific!duty!to!act,!as! with!a!guardian,!parent,!or!lifeguard ! Negligence:!an!unintentional!careless!act!that!results!in!injury!to!another ! Negligent'words:!failure!to!live!up!to!a!duty!not!to!communicate!misleading!words!causing!economic! loss! NonLpecuniary'damages:!damages!based!on!nonHmonetary!factors!such!as!pain!and!suffering ! No'fault'programs:!insurance!program!compensating!people!for!their!injuries!whether!they!were!at! fault!or!not! Professional'liability: !manufacturers!owe!a!duty!when!users!are!injured! by!their!products! Professional'liability'insur
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