Chapter 6 Cognition.docx

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Western University
Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 3305A/B
Suzanne Kearns

Chapter 6 COGNITION (“thinking”) September 24, 2013  Cerebellum: keeping us upright  Vascular layer: 20% of oxygen coming from lungs/heart servicing brain o Learned we can track blood flow non-evasively  Temporal cortex: primary auditory processing  Anterior cingulated cortex: all your decision making o Think teens make bad decisions? Its true… this part doesn’t mature until early 20’s  86B neurons on brain (neurons are cells are store information  network allows access) o Mapping functions  time individual cells o Each neuron is connected to 10K neurons & connected by synapses o All these connections that link neurons together continually growing + dying off (don’t access in long time?  die)  Learning + forgetting o Driven by fundamental biochemistry  Proteins (encoded by genomes – chromosomes)  Everything nervous system as to do  “oh what was that called? “  start thinking about other things to try to pulse synapses to remember  Stages of information processing o Perception (aware) o Processing (think) o Responding SELECTIVE ATTENTION  Only so much attention to go around… limited.  Salience (more obvious) o Bottom-up process o Attentional capture  Expectancy o Top-down process o Brain thinks “it should be there”… alarm should go off  Value o Top-down process o If you think you need to get to class, you’ll wake up  Effort o Depends on how you define effort… if things are more work  less likely to do it (humans effort conserving) SENSORY REGISTER  You sense something o (alarm clock rings)  Very brief storage (sensory memory) o Visual 1 second o Auditory 2-4 seconds  Gives you opportunity to process PERCEPTION  Information receiving attention is processed further during perception  Recognize  give meaning (must reference long-term memory)  Can you perceive without attention? o Cocktail party effect  Compare to information in the long-term memory o Change bits of info to concepts o The big picture OBJECT&P ATTERNR ECOGNITION  What is the bird holding? o Sensory: “A convoluted red form with a linear green attachment” o Perception: “A rose!” PERCEPTUALPROCESSES  Feature analysis  Unitization  Top-down processing Feature Analysis  Breaking down complex stimuli into parts o Break into component features o Match the features to long-term memory o Decide-identify the features Unitization (Text Perception)  UNITIZATION: processing occurs automatically if you see the words enough times o Words are processed easier than random numbers  Numbers + text? Make numbers bigger to compensate Top-down processing (Human Factors Implications  make easier to perceive)  Maximize bottom-up processing o Ensure visible legibility or audibility o Minimize similarity of message sets (avoid confusion)  Maximize automaticity + unitization o Use proper case  Capital letters  isolated words (TITLE)  Mixture lower/upper cases  this is better for sentences  One word?  capital ok o Minimize abbreviations  Be consistent with abbreviations  Use first few letters if abbreviating (i.e. “info” is better than “rmation”)  Space between words or numbers (i.e. 123 03 4321)  Maximize top-down processing o Use small vocabulary o Create context (i.e. right engine fuel gauge on right of aircraft) present it in a way that makes sense o Redundancy: simultaneous display of visual/auditory/tactile info (i.e. stickshaker) o Beware of perceptual errors  Subject: power of the human mind (automatic processing) o Looks like “THE CAT” but says “THE CHT”… sometimes unitization can get in the way o What we see is a total mess  top down processing  make sense of it o Example: mix colours and letters  You try to read the word  happens automatically o Influence over time  reconstructive memory WORKING MEMORY  Holds verbal & spatial information o Verbal info disturbed by other verbal info; spatial info disturbed by spatial info… BUT, you can mix  Where cognitive processing takes place o What we are thinking about & paying attention to  Sometimes called “short term memory”  To move from short-term to long-term… repetition!  Limitations hold major implications for system design A Model of Working Memory CAPACITY  How much information can be kept? o Upper limit: 7 ±2 chunks (anywhere between 5-9 chunks)  Chunks: physical & cognitive properties that binds items together  Examples: o 8 4 7 9 (4 chunks) o 82 28 78 82 (4 chunks) o OMWAUCSCA (1 chunk) o CAM MOS UWO (3 chunks) o Is this confusing? (3 chunks)  Depends on how information relates to you! ATTENTION ANDSIMILARITY  Working memory is resource limited  If attention is shifted, rehearsal will stop o Auditory disruption  Spatial distractions  effect visual spatial sketchpad  Auditory distractions  disrupt the phonetic loop  Turn attention elsewhere? …Bye-bye chunks! CONFUSABILITY ANSIMILARITY  Within working memory o [E G B D V C] is more difficult than [E N W R U J]  Memory decay is more significant with acoustically similar information  Repetition is likely to be confused o Example: “Was it 2992 or 2922
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