Chapter 16 Automation.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 3305A/B
Suzanne Kearns

Chapter 16 AUTOMATION October 16, 2013 AUTOMATION  When a machine assumes a human operator’s task BUT, human being is still central to machine  Human factors o System performance is linked to human attention + perception + cognition in managing the automation o Automation performance depends on interaction of people with technology WHY AUTOMATE? 1. Impossible or hazardous o Automatic readers for visually impaired o Robotic handling of dangerous material 2. Difficult or unpleasant o Flight management system 3. Extend human capability o Autopilots pilot can pay attention to other things 4. Technically possible o Automated phone menusS STAGES OF AUTOMATION  Information acquisition + selection + filtering (TCAS)  Information integration (TCAS takes traffic information)  Action selection + choice (TCAS tells you what to do)  Control + action execution (TCAS does it for you… not possible, but you get the point) PROBLEMS IN AUTOMATION AUTOMATION RELIABILITY  “perceived reliability” is what is important (i.e. when TCAS first came out, not crazy reliable…that gen of pilots hate) o Impacted by  Humans setting up automation incorrectly  Automation appearing to be acting erroneously  Unreliability  Certain situations TRUST  Trust should be well calibrated o Trust in proportion to reliability  Human trust in automation is not well calibrated o Too low (distrust) o Too high (over-trust) OVERTRUST ANDC OMPLACENCY  Occurs when people trust automation too much o Severe consequences when automation is less than 100% reliable  Situation awareness  Detection  Skill loss (de-skilling) o Reduced self-confidence o Degrade ability to intervene AUTOMATION FAILURES  Automation tends to fail under the most challenging circumstances o Many decisions aids “give up” for complex proble
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