Chapter 12 Work Physiology.docx

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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 3305A/B
Suzanne Kearns

Chapter 12 WORK PHYSIOLOGY October 9, 2013 M USCLESTRUCTURE  Primary function o Generate force + produce movement  3 types of muscle cells o Cardiac muscle  Heart muscle  NOT under voluntary control o Smooth muscle  Stomach, intestines, blood vessels, bladder  Automatic; NOT under voluntary control  allows us to function o Skeletal muscle  Attached to bones of skeleton  Largest tissue of body; appx. 50% of body  allows us to accomplish work  ATP allows us to contract muscles for work ATP  Behaves like a rechargeable battery o Stores energy for a few seconds (allows work for few seconds) o When energy is needed, ATP convert to ADP o To maintain work, ATP must be continuously synthesized + replenished  3 sources of ATP o Creatine phosphate (CP) o Aerobic metabolism  Metabolism in presence of oxygen o Anaerobic metabolism  Metabolism not in presence of oxygen CREATINE PHOSPHATE  Transfers energy to ADP to recharge it to ATP o Acts as a backup energy storage for ATP o Energy storage is about 4x ATP  ATP & CP systems are still very limited o Supply energy for 10 seconds of heavy work o Supply energy for 60 seconds of moderate work  First thing your body goes to AEROBIC METABOLISM  When muscle activities over a long duration, energy must come fm other sources  Aerobic metabolism o Supplies most ATP when O2 is available o Nutrients are burned in presence of O2  Energy is released to form ATP for muscle work  Generates CO2 as a waste product  Takes a while for respiratory system to jump up ANAEROBIC METABOLISM  Aerobic metabolism is delayed 1-3 minutes while blood flow is increased  Anaerobic metabolism supplies this energy o Through metabolism of glucose to lactic acid o Produces ATP very rapidly  Disadvantage is lactic acid o Lactic acid causes  Acidity of muscle to increase  Muscle pain  Muscle fatigue  Removal of lactic acid requires O2 Moderate vs. Heavy Work  Light or moderate work o Aerobic metabolism  Heavy work (i.e. construction, baggage handling) o Anaerobic metabolism  Fatigue develops rapidly CIRCULATORY SYSTEM  Composed of o Blood o Cardiovascular system  Facilitates flow of nutrients and such for energy BLOOD  Blood o Red blood cells  Transport O2 + remove waste o White blood cells  Fight infections o Platelets  Help stop bleeding o Plasma  90% water, 10% nutrients  Suspends blood cells  Total blood weight o 8% of body weight  Blood’s ability to deliver O2 + remove waste is reduced if o Low red-cell count o Individual has a low blood volume (i.e. donated blood) o Works in a polluted or poorly ventilated environment o Is at high altitudes THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM LUNG CAPACITY  A resting adult breathes 10-15 breaths per minute  Light work o Deeper breaths  Heavy work o 45 breaths per minute  Lung muscle expands (diaphragm)  bring air in  Lung/nose moi
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