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Management and Organizational Studies
Management and Organizational Studies 3344A/B
Richard Sorrentino

MISSED LECTURE ON FIRE EXTINGUISHERS** STRESS Physiological and psychological reactions to events of situations (stressors) – if the stressors are not there then you‟re not stressed  Events or stressors can be construed differently by different people – not everything is a stressor o Ex: Phobias Eustress – Good stress  Positive Energy  Motivating at optimal level of arousal (not too much or too little) o So happy you‟re crying Distress – Bad stress  Situation which is demanding but outcome is beyond personal control  E.g., job interviews, exams Strain – both for eustress and distress you can experience strain  Consequence of stress  Burnout – person becomes disassociated with the outcome their in Seven Major Categories of Stress: 1. Organizational Antecedents to Stress a. Broad based and abstract causes of stress i. E.g., economic growth and people are hiring in masses ii. Relationship may be „lagged‟ or delayed – e.g., downsizing 2. Stressors in Organizational Life a. Task content (simplistic vs. complex; monotonous vs. variety) i. Most people fall somewhere between the monotonous – complex b. Role properties (social aspects and supervisory responsibilities) c. Role conflicts i. Demands at home vs. demands at work d. What you expect you should be doing vs. what you are actually doing do not match (dissonance) e. Role overload – time vs. quality f. Role ambiguity – unsure of task i. Employer or HR professional is not doing their job about telling you what needs to be done g. Physical Stressors – noise, temperature, light, vibrations 3. Perceptions and Cognitions Perception – What you are seeing, hearing, tasting, and smelling Cognition – You can provide the same sensory experience to people (perception) but they will think about it differently a. Cope with stress b. “Forecasting” i. Constant worrying about the future (long-term stress) c. Analyze problem and possible actions d. Primary appraisal – initial assessment i. When you ask people to stop and think „is this applicable to me?‟ – if not then stop at this stage e. Secondary Appraisal – coming up with alternate courses of action i. Decision making kicks in f. “Residual Stress” = Stress carried over from previous situations – ex: stress carrying over from work to home, home to work i. Sex differences in terms of residual stress – females report longer residual stress but males carry the stress just as long but they stop talking about it earlier 4. Responses to Stress a. Physiological – blood pressure goes up, ulcers, too much cortisol i. Males with too much stress can have reproduction problems because cortisol is stored in the testicles b. Psychological (affect – anger, hostility, depression) c. Behavioural – accidents, theft, quitting, spousal abuse, alcohol and drug intake 5. Consequences of Stress a. Job performance change b. Health Issues – happens due to the high levels of cortisol c. “Burn out” – emotional exhaustion, want to be alone (when you can‟t escape) d. Behaviour change e. Absenteeism, turnover, drug and alcohol use – trying to get away from the stressor 6. Properties of the Person as Stress Mediators a. Type A vs. Type B i. Type A – increased aggression, speed, and competition ii. Type B – Relax and pace work – likes staying at the low end of the stress level (won‟t engage in self-induced stress) b. Locus of Control (Internal or External) i. Internal – what happens to you is in your control ii. External – What happens to you is due to an external force I. External locus of control handle stress better 7. Properties of the Situation as Stress Mediators a. Social support reduces stress – males, in case of job loss, will look for jobs right away while females will vent about it to friends or family (better) b. Predictability of Stress – the more predictable the stress is, the less stressful the event will become c. Understandability of work d. Controllability of stressors VIOLENCE IN THE WORKPLACE  Growing trend of violence at work  Focus is on human aggression  Violence may be from perceived injustices (e.g., break in psychological contract – unwritten rules) o Affects males more than females in the workforce because males tend to define themselves first as what they do  Violence may be from interpersonal problems – disagreements between individuals  Aggression = product of individual and the situation Aggression Situational Factors:  Population density  Noise  Heat  Alcohol o Most common in bars/clubs Perpetuators of Violence General Characteristics:  Male (80%) o 20% females are more likely to bully than to perpetuate physical violence  Between 20-50 years old (usually 40‟s – typically because they now have dependents)  Self-esteem is linked to job  Like violent films and/or guns/weapons  Usually own weapons  Are described as „loners‟  Typically diagnosed with paranoid disorders – problem is that if you start monitoring people, you are more likely to perpetuate their paranoia because you are actually watching them Strategies for Organizations to Adopt for Workplace Violence 1. Preventative Strategies a. Remove hazards b. Training 2. Security Measures a. Surveillance cameras b. Restricted access to work areas 3. Employee Screening a. Background and reference checking b. Psychological testing/assessment 4. Management Awareness a. Train in risk assessment and intervention b. Look for „signs‟ c. Listen to concerns/fears from workers 5. Reactive Strategies a. Improve ability to recognize and react to problems i. Assume that there will be an act of violence ii. E.g., formal emergency plans 6. Rehabilitative Strategy a. Help employees deal with problems b. E.g., counseling problems TRAINING Learning Principles Applied to Training Reinforcement – Indirect or direct feedback from the job performance  Grade on exam, people clapping, Practice – Increase familiarity with the task  Repetitive Practice – ideal for motor skills (massed practice)  Distributive Practice – repeat aspects of a job (learn a bit at a time) o Better for more complex jobs o We do this in school and university Asterson’s (1985) Three Phases of Skill Acquisition 1 – Declarative Knowledge  Know facts by memorizing or reasoning  Slow performance  Error prone  General Intelligence (g) important to master – amount of variance accounted for, quick at nd memorization 2 – Knowledge Compilation  Integrate cognitive and motor processes  Streamline behaviour as you start getting better at the behaviour  Perceptual speed is important to master (vs. g in the first stage) 3 – Procedural Knowledge  Skill is automatic  Able to so skill and other tasks  Psychomotor ability important to master (coordination) Training Strategies 1. Speed Strategy a. Competitive edge from reduced time for products/services (fast food, restaurants) i. Stressful for the trainees – people will start to skip steps and are more likely to make an accident b. Train in team work and streamline methods - efficiency 2. Innovation Strategy a. Develop products or services different from competition b. Train people to think creatively i. Requires judges and others‟ perceptions of what is creative – what is a good measure of creativity? 3. Quality Enhancement Strategy a. Offer better product or service 4. Cost-Reduction Strategy a. Provide a cheaper product or service i. Sell a lot more of them than the Quality Enhancement Strategy Training – First Step Assessing Training Needs 1. Organizational Analysis a. Can a new behaviour learned transfer on the job behaviour? 2. Task Analysis a. Determine training/learning objectives 4 Steps: i. Develop Task Statements – What does the worker do? How does the worker do their job? What tools, etc. To whom or what does the worker work with? Why does the worker do what they do? ii. Develop Task Clusters – Group tasks into similar groups Prepare Knowledge, Skill, and Ability Analysis (KSAs) K = Needed information to do the job S = Psychomotor skills (drive a car, multitask, physical capabilities) A = Cognitive Capabilities – MOST DIFFICULT TO TRAIN*** You can train people on the first two, not necessarily the third. iii. Develop Training Programs for the KSA Task Links Train KSAs 3. Person Analysis a. Who needs training? – Listing and providing managers a list of who needs training b. What kind of training is needed? i. A calendar date based on when certifications are expiring OR need training based on worker evaluations ii. Information from: 1. Performance Appraisal Scores 2. Surveys of Employees 3. Interviews with employees 4. Skill and knowledge test scores (testing K in the KSA‟s) 5. Critical Incidents on the job Methods of Training On- Site Training  On the Job Training o A.k.a Coaching o Instructors = senior workers o Imitate what the person‟s behaviour is o Maximum transfer of training (same content and location) o Easy to administer BUT brief and poorly structured
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