MOS Chapter 4 Notes
Intellectual capital: the combination of the human capital and the organizational support that
enables the human capital to flourish
Orientation: formal process of familiarizing new employees with the organization, their jobs,
and their work unit and embedding organizational values, beliefs, and accepted behaviours
Training: the acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform current work
Development: the acquisition of skills, behaviours, and abilities to perform future work or to
solve and organizational problem
Primary goal of those 3 definitions is to contribute to the organization’s overall goals,
orientation, training, and development programs should be structured with an eye to
organizational goals and strategies
Systems approach to training should involve four phases
o Needs assessment, program design, training delivery, and evaluation of training
For training to be effective, it is important that employers provide strong support
Managers and HR professionals need to pay attention to when training is needed
Needs assessment questions (pg. 108)
The success of training programs depends on more than the organization’s ability to identify
needs
Training design should focus on at least four related issues
o Instructional objectives: desired outcomes of a training program
o Trainee readiness and motivation: the consideration of a trainee’s maturity and
experience when assessing him or her
o Principles of learning
o Characteristics of instructors
6 essential strategies to create a training environment (pg. 110)
Feedback serves two purposes: knowledge of results and motivation
Behaviour modification: technique that if behaviour is rewarded it will be exhibited more
frequently in the future
A major consideration in choosing among various training methods is determining which ones
are appropriate for the KSAs to be learned
On the job training (OJT): method by which employees are given hands on experience with
instructions from their supervisor or other trainer
o Three common drawbacks: lack of well-structured training environment, poor training
skills of managers, the absence of well-defined job performance criteria
o Suggestions to overcome these programs (pg. 112)
Apprenticeship training: system of training in which a worker entering the skilled trades is given
a thorough instruction and experience, both on and off the job, in the practical and theoretical
aspects of work
Cooperative training: training program that combines practical on the job experience with
formal education
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