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Lecture 8

Management and Organizational Studies 1022F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Jet Lag, Intelligence Quotient, Machismo

Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 1022F/G
Suzanne Kearns

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Safety Management Systems
Making mistakes is a natural part of being human
Safety is the state in which the possibility of harm to persons or property
damage is reduced…..
Historically, safety has been a reactive process
An accident much occur to initiate safety process.
It is much better to be proactive and identify hazard and risk to eliminate
Safety Perspectives
o Early aviation focused primarily on the aircraft as the source
of accidents.
o If pilots are unprepared or the aircraft unequipped for
dangerous weather conditions, accidents may result.
o Led to the development of effective onboard weather radar
and anti-icing systems.
o Attempts to understand safety as a function of the social
o Examine the social dynamics within flight crews to determine
when risks and mistake occur.
o CRM resulted from this perspective.
o Describes accidents as the result of medical deficiencies in
the pilots physiology
o Reason all pilots must maintain pilot medical certificates
o Linked to limitations of human memory
o New technology such as synthetic vision and TCAS reduces
mental workload and increases situational awareness
o Significant advancement in safety science
o Views safety as an interaction between hardware, software,
environmental, Liveware(You) and Liveware (Others). (Shell
All of these approaches contribute to our understanding of how
safety and accidents occur.
SMS requires an adoption of a safety perspective that takes into
consideration each of these perspectives
Organizational Perspectives
Breaks into 4 layers
o Organizational influences
o Unsafe supervision
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o Preconditions for unsafe acts
o Unsafe Acts
Swiss Cheese Model, when all the holes line up an accident occurs.
This approach allows companies to adopt a proactive/predictive
approach to safety.
o Indentify risk before accidents
o Allows for identification and elimination of latent conditions
Goal of SMS is to proactively manage risk
Achieved in 4 ways:
o Define clear accountability and responsibility
o Setting performance goals and actively pursue them
o Managing safety risk systematically and proactively,
including continuous improvement and learning.
o Monitoring and evaluating performance toward goals
SMS is being implemented into 5 Major Sectors
o Aeronautical product design and manufacturing
o Air operations
o Aircraft maintenance
o Air traffic control
o Airports
Characteristics of SMS
o Systematic
o Proactive
o Explicit- documents, visible and defensible
Key Components of SMS
o Commitment of senior management
o Safety Reporting
o Continual Monitoring
o Safety Occurrence Investigation
o Sharing of Safety Lessons
o Integration of safety into training programs
o Utilization SOP
As of 2010, SMS are international requirement. However, Canada has been a
world leader in early implementations of SMS.
Performance vs. Prescriptive based Regulations
Prescriptive Regulations
o Requires strict regulatory framework with regular safety
inspections and audits by TC.
Performance-based Regulations
o Designed as safety risk controls
o Allows companies to comply with regulations dynamically,
based on their own unique safety risk
Other Benefits of SMS
Direct and indirect savings resulting form the prevention of
More competitive in the global market
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