Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Lecture Notes - Electronic Body Music, Job Satisfaction, Cognitive Dissonance

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Class 3: Chapters 2, 3, and 4 23/01/2013 4:00:00 PM
What weve done so far:
General intro and overview of OB
How the world of work is changing the reasons, the challenges
and how it is affecting the workplace
Chapter 2: Personality and Learning
What is personality?
Patterns of behaviour that determines how an individual reacts and
interacts with others
Key word = PATTERNS
Pattern of behaviour that is predictable in like circumstances
Personality determinants:
o Heredity
o Environment
o Situation
o Mass media (major influencer)
Some people never really think on their own
Pay attention to what the consistent response is as opposed to their
response based on the people / environment around them
Evidence Based management (EBM) Claim #1:
Big 5 personality dimensions can be strong predictors of behaviour:
o Linked to OB: each dimension leads to better job performance
o Relate to other work behaviours
o Related to work motivation & job satisfaction
o Related to job search and career success
Evidence based management (EBM) Claim #2:
Locus of Control:
o Research showed that people who are high on internal control
are more satisfied with their jobs, earn more money, and
achieve higher org positions because they engage in careful
career planning
o Research found people with high internal locus of control
seem to perceive less stress, to cope with stress better.
o Very healthy to have people around you with high internal
locus of control
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o High internal locus of control = believe that what happens to
you is based on your own actions
o High external locus of control = believe that what happens to
you is based on the environment making it happen that way
EBM Claim #3:
Self-esteem:
o Brockner research studies (1988) on behavioural plasticity
theory as it relates to self esteem found:
Employees with low self esteem tend to react badly to
negative feedback it lowers their subsequent
performance
Employees with low self-esteem tend to be more
susceptible to external and social influences…They are
more pliable.
Do you have a proactive personality?
Attributes help us predict the kind of behaviour people will exhibit
at the workplace
Do these attributes sound like you?
o Believe you can change things in your environment
o Engage in lots of extra-curricular and service-oriented
activities
o Strive for major personal accomplishments
Self efficacy:
Brought up in this chapter
LEARNING THEORY:
How do individual employees learn to behave a certain way?
o Practical skills:
Knowledge
Technical skills
o Interpersonal skills
Communication
Team oriented
Conflict resolved
o Intrapersonal skills
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Problem solving
Critical thinking
Risk taking
o Cultural awareness
Goals
Operations
Priorities
Expectations
Classical conditioning behaviour can be conditioned
o Pavlov’s dog:
1904 russian physiologist
subjects dogs would salivate whenever assistant
entered room
show food salivary response (reflex)
anticipation of food salivary response (conditioned
behaviour)
SAME RESPONSES!
o Skinner’s Box:
19030’s US psychologist
rat in cage learns to “operate” on environment
lever is pushed rat gets pellet
can be used to increase probability of desired behaviour
o these two are practices that can be utilized by managers
o danger is that managers can use them incorrectly in the
workplace
o Managers can make errors using reinforcement:
Do reward ($pay) = neglecting work ethic differences,
philosophical diversity or job styles
Neglecting other sources of reinforcement
Positive performance feedback
Positive social recognition
o These are things managers need to think of
Money should not be thought of
Exhibit 2.3 Reinforcement Strategies
Hot stove method:
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