Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Lecture Notes - Social Cognitive Theory, Organizational Learning, Human Relations Movement

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Chapter 1: Organizational Behaviour and
Management 05/02/2013 4:52:00 PM
Learning Objectives:
1. Organizations are social inventions for accomplishing common goals
through group effort. The basic characteristic of organizations is that they
involve the coordinated efforts of people working together to accomplish
common goals.
2. Organizational behaviour refers to the attitudes and behaviours of
individuals and groups in an organizational context. The field of
organizational behaviour systematically studies these attitudes and
behaviours and provides advice about how organizations can manage
them effectively. The goals of the field include the prediction, explanation,
and management of organizational behaviour.
3. Management is the art of getting things accomplished in organizations
through others. It consists of acquiring, allocating, and utilizing physical
and human resources to accomplish goals.
4. The classical view of management advocated a high degree of employee
specialization and a high degree of coordination of labour from the top of
the organization. Taylor’s scientific management and Weber’s views on
bureaucracy are in line with the classical position. The human relations
movement pointed out the “people problems” that the classical
management style sometimes provoked and advocated more interesting
job design, more employee participation in decisions, and less centralized
5. The contemporary contingency approach to management suggests that
the most effective management styles and organizational designs are
dependent on the demands of the situation.
6. Research on what managers do shows that they fulfill interpersonal,
informational, and decisional roles. Important activities include routine
communication, traditional management, networking, and human
resource management. Managers pursue agendas through networking
and use intuition to guide decision making. The demands on managers
vary across cultures. A good grasp of organizational behaviour is essential
for effective management.
7. A number of societal and global trends are shaping contemporary
management concerns, including local and global diversity; changes in
employee-organization relationships; the need to improve quality, speed,
and flexibility; talent management; and a focus on corporate social
Chapter 2: Personality and Learning 05/02/2013 4:52:00 PM
Learning Objectives:
1. Personality is the relatively stable set of psychological characteristics that
influences the way we interact with our environment. It has more impact
on behaviour in weak situations than in strong situations.
2. According to the dispositional approach, stable individual characteristics
influence people’s attitudes and behaviours. The situational approach
argues that characteristics in the work environment influence people’s
attitudes and behaviour. The interactionist approach posits that
organizational behaviour is a function of both dispositions and the
3. The five-factor model consists of five basic dimensions of personality:
a. Extraversion
b. Emotional stability / neuroticism
c. Agreeableness
d. Conscientiousness
e. Openness to experience
Research has found that the “Big Five” are related to job performance,
motivation, job satisfaction, and career outcomes.
4. People who have in internal locus of control are more satisfied with their
jobs, earn more money, and achieve higher organizational positions. High
self-monitors have good communication skills and persuasive abilities and
are more likely to change employers and locations and to receive more
promotions that individuals who are low self-monitors. People with high
self-esteem tend to make more fulfilling career decisions, to exhibit
higher job satisfaction and job performance, and to be generally more
resilient to the strains of everyday work-life.
5. People who are high on positive affectivity experience positive emotions
and moods and tend to view the world in a positive light, including
themselves and other people. People who are high on negative affectivity
experience negative emotions and moods and tend to ciew the world in a
negative light. Proactive personality is a stable personal disposition that