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Lecture 8

Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Centrality, Final Offer, Ingratiation

Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Sarah Ross

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William Xu MOS 2181A 21-11-2018
Lecture 8 Notes
Power and Influence
Power Is the ability to influence the behaviours of others and resist unwanted influence in
return. Just because someone has influence doesn’t mean that they exert it. Are you able to
deny a request? You can express may different types of power at the same time.
Organisational Power More formal in nature.
o Legitimate Power Power based on authority or position.
o Reward Power Based on control of resources or benefits.
o Coercive Power Based on ability to hand out punishment.
Personal Power Can be used in an organisational setting.
o Expert Power Based on expertise and knowledge.
o Referent Power Based on attractiveness and charisma of the leader.
Power and Influence is positive moderately correlated with Job Performance and Commitment.
Contingencies of Power
Substitutability Degree to which people have alternatives in accessing the resources that a
leader has control over. If you know something that other people know then you are
substitutable, while if you are the only one who knows stuff then you are not substitutable.
Discretion Degree to which managers have the right to make decisions on their own.
Centrality How important a person’s job is and how many people depend on that person to
accomplish tasks. How many people depend on you.
Visibility How aware others are of a leader and the resources that a leader can provide.
Key to strong leadership is low substitutability, high discretion, centrality, and visibility.

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William Xu MOS 2181A 21-11-2018
Lecture 8 Notes
Influence The use of behaviours to cause behavioural or attitudinal changes in others. Often
downward directional. Most successful upward technique is rational persuasion. Influence matters more
when it is relative to someone else rather than in an absolute sense.
Most Effective
o Rational Persuasion Use of logical arguments and hard facts to show that a request is
worthwhile. Using research to support proposed changes.
o Inspirational Appeals Appeal to one’s values and ideals to create an emotional or
attitudinal reaction. Using morals and values to support proposed changes.
o Consultation Target can participate in deciding how to carry out a request. Allowing
something to have input in how the request is fulfilled.
o Collaboration Leader makes it easier for the target to complete request by offering to
work with and help the target. Providing help for to the person fulfilling the request.
Moderately Effective
o Ingratiation Use of favours, compliments, or friendly behaviour to make the target
feel better about the influencer. Works in the long term, however it can be looked upon
negatively if made right before a request.
o Personal Appeals Requestor asks for something based on friendship or loyalty. The
friendlier you are with someone the more likely they are to fulfill your request.
o Exchange Requestor offers a reward in return for performing a request.
o Apprising Requestor clearly explains why performing the request will benefit the
target personally. A kid alphabetising a pile of exams will be better at alphabetising.
Least Effective
o Pressure Tactic in which the requestor attempts to use coercive power through
threats and demands. Do something or you’re fired.
o Coalitions Influencer enlists other people to help influence target. Using a group to
pressure someone into submission.
Responses to Influence Tactics
Internalisation Target agrees with and becomes committed to the request. The goal of the
organisation. Changing behaviours and attitudes.
Compliance Target is willing to perform request but does so with indifference. Changing your
behaviours but not your attitude.
Resistance Target is opposed to request and attempts to avoid doing it. Rejecting the request
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