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Lecture 6

Management and Organizational Studies 2181A/B Lecture 6: Mos 2181 Lecture 6

Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
MOS 2181A/B
Sarah Ross

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Mos 2181 Lecture 6
The Communication Process
Communication process by which information is exchanged between a
sender and a receiver
Encoding: preparing the message to be sent
Decoding: interpreting the message
Information: an organization is making changes to its attendance
Sender: The HR manager needs to send this information
Encoding: The HR manager prepares an e-mail about the policy
Message: The HR manager sends the message about the policy
Decoding: Employees receive the message about the policy change
and need to interpret it
Understanding: Employees understand how the policy change will
impact them
Face-To-Face Vs. Computer-Mediated Communication
Face-to-Face Communication
o Exchange of information and meaning when one or more
individuals are physically present and where communication
occurs without the aid of mediating technology

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o Natural, immediate, real time
o Rich information source
o Verbal and nonverbal communication
Verbal Communication
o Messages are sent and received using written and spoken
o Reading, writing, speaking, listening
o Written messages can convey what is important and how/why
things are done
o Oral communication is probably more prevalent than written
communication in organizational settings
Non-Verbal Communication
o Any form of information exchange that doesn’t involve spoken
or written words
o 70-90% of a message's meaning is conveyed by body language
o Tone, hand gestures, facial expression, posture, eye contact,
dress, appearance
Computer-Mediated Communication
o The exchange of information and meaning using an electronic,
digital medium
o Enhances engagement and verbal exchanges, but doesn’t easily
allow for nonverbal communication
One piece of research has shown with respect to email that as the
use of email increaes, the frequency of the use of all forms of
information decreases. This is another potential disadvantage of
Examples of digital communication tools:
Lacks richness and is informal
Messages can be difficult to interpret

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Information overload
Permits real-time, live interaction
Option for those unable to travel
Works well for routine decisions or simple information
Prevents eye contact and general awareness of social
dynamics in the group
Corporate wikis
Allow anyone to edit or delete content (like Wikipedia)
Open access, transparency, peer-based management
Exciting and engaging
Risk exposing incompetence or looking foolish to peers
Social network applications
Can be used to share files, tap expertise, recognize
others, collaborate
Ie) LinkedIn
Problems in the Communication Process
5 potential problems in the communication process:
I. Communicator Competence
o Ability of communicators to encode and interpret messages
o Ie) someone who isn't skilled in listening carefully can
misinterpret a message
o Ie) ability to understand the emotions of others and regulate
emptions can affect communication
II. Noise
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