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Lecture 3

Management and Organizational Studies 3321F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 3: Cheeseburger, Mass Customization, Materialism

8 pages82 viewsWinter 2018

Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
Management and Organizational Studies 3321F/G
Professor
Beth Lee
Lecture
3

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CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR LECTURE 3 + TEXTBOOK NOTES (FROM
SLIDES)
MOTIVATION AND AFFECT
MOTIVATION AND GOALS
Motivation:
o IS A Process that leads people to behave as they do
o The drives, urges, wishes, or desires that initiate the sequence of
events leading to a behavior
Goal: Consumers desired end-state
Want: Manifestation
of consumer need
WHAT INFLUENCES MOTIVATION
Personal Relevance (personally relevant, self-concept, value)
o Personally relevant: The extent to which it has direct bearing with
significant consequence
o Self-concept: Our view of who we are
o Value: Culturally held beliefs about what is good or appropriate
- Ex: Some cultures believe strongly in marriage so you would be
more motivated to find a partner
Needs
o An internal state of tension cause by disequilibrium from an ideal/
desired physical or psychological state
o TYPES OF NEEDS:
Biogenic
Biological needs, such as for air, water, food
Psychogenic
Need for status, power, affiliation
Utilitarian
Need for tangible attributes of a product, such as miles per
gallon in a car or calories in a cheeseburger
Hedonic
Needs for excitement, self-confidence, fantasy
o Maslow’s Hierarchy of needs
Physiological Needs
Safety Security Needs
Social Needs
Ego needs
1. Inward related to self esteem (Ex: buying
environmentally friendly products cause you want to
save the environment)
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2. Outward- Buying a BMW to show others how good I
am
Self Actualization / Self fulfilment
Lower level needs must be satisfied before higher
o CHARACTERISTICS of Needs
Dynamic (EX: If you’re Hangry, and then eat, and then
you’re tired and sleepy; as you fulfill one need multiple
needs can arise
Hierarchical
Internally and externally aroused (EX: Hungry internally
aroused, if you’ve already ate and then you see a restaurant
and now you want to eat externally aroused)
Motivational conflicting
- Goal Valence
Positively valued goal: Approach
Negatively Valued goal: Avoid
Positive and Negative Motives often conflict
with one another
Approach-avoidance conflict
Two desirable alternatives; cognitive dissonance
(EX: Burger vs. Pizza)
Approach-approach conflict
Positive and negative aspect of desired product:
Guilt of desire occurs (EX: eating sweets vs. gaining
weight)
Avoidance-avoidance conflict
Facing a choice with two undesirable alternatives
(EX: eating greens staying healthy vs. getting sick)
Goals
o Regulatory Focus Theory
- Hedonic principle: People wish to approach pleasure
and to avoid pain we are all governed by this but
some of us have stronger promotion focus goal and
some have prevention focus goal
- Implications: Westerners tend to have a promotion
focus goal; Asians tend to have a stronger prevention
focus goal
Asians- avoiding negative outcome is more
important than getting positive outcomes
- Promotion focus goal: Approaching positive outcome
EX: Dove Body Lotion
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To make your skin soft and smooth, use Dove
body lotion (approaching gains)
Improved Dove body lotion will enrich your skin
in cold and dry winter weather
(accomplishment)
- Prevention focus goal: Avoiding negative outcomes
EX: Dove Body Lotion
To prevent dry and itchy skin, use Dove body
lotion (avoiding losses)
Dove body lotion will protect your skin from
cold and dry winter weather (safety)
EVALUATION OF DOVE ADS
-0.3
-0.2
-0.1
0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
Canadians Asians
Promotion Ad
Prevention Ad
Perceived risks
o The extent to which the consumer is uncertain about the
consequences of buying, using, disposing
o When negative outcomes are likely or positive outcomes are
unlikely, perceived risk is high
o Types of perceived risk
Financial risk
Social risk
Physical risk
Psychological risk
Time risk
o When perceived risk is HIGH marketers can reduce the perceived
consequences of failure vs when perceived risk LOW
Involvement
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