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Lecture 2

Management and Organizational Studies 3321F/G Lecture 2: CB LEC 2

8 pages88 viewsWinter 2018

Department
Management and Organizational Studies
Course Code
Management and Organizational Studies 3321F/G
Professor
Beth Lee
Lecture
2

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CONSUMER BEHAVIOUR LECTURE 2: LEARNING
CONSUMER LEARNING
A relatively permanent change in behaviour that is caused by experience
Learning can take place either
o Vicariously
- (Seeing your friend bargaining at a store so the next time you go
to the store you bargain like her)
o Incidentally
- When you never intend to learn something but incidentally do,
because you’re exposed to it so much
BEHAVIOURAL LEARNING THEORIES
Assume that learning takes place as the result of responses to external
events, as opposed to internal thought processes (known as stimulus-
response theories)
Pavlovs classical conditioning
Skinners instrumental conditioning
Cognitive learning theory
PAVOLOV’S CLASSICAL CONDITIONING
Consumers learn associations between stimuli in a rather simple fashion
without more complex processes (associative learning)
Classic Conditioning focuses on visual and olfactory cues that induce
physiological responses related to consumer needs
A stimulus that elicits a response is paired with another stimulus that
initially does not elicit a response on its own
Pavlov introduced the concepts of:
o Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
o Conditioned stimulus (CS)
o Conditioned responses (CR)
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The bell was a neutral stimulus because it didn’t do much
The dog wouldn’t respond
Then Pavlov brought the food and it would salivate
Food was the unconditioned stimulus; salivation was the unconditioned
response
Then during conditioning, Pavlov rang the bell and right after showed the
food
This is called PAIRING what’s important in this situation is that the
neutral stimulus should come first
This resulted in the dog salivating and this was done multiple times
Because to learn something repetition is important
After conditioning, Pavlov rang the bell and the dog would start drooling
even though there was no food
Its not the same bell anymore, now it’s a conditioned stimulus and
salivation is conditioned response
EXAMPLE OF CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (**like Midterm Questions)
Every time Sue sees that hilarious commercial for Champion’s pizza, it
makes her laugh and feel good. When she sees a sign for Champion’s
Pizza while driving, she smiles.
o Unconditioned stimulus: humour
o Neutral/Conditioned stimulus: (the sign) Champion’s Pizza
o Unconditioned/Conditioned: Good Feelings
ASSOCIATIVE LEARNING: REPITITION
Repetition increases the strength of the association between a conditioned
stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus
Repetition as double edged sword
o Extinction: The process whereby a learned connection between a
stimulus and response is eroded so that the response disappear
o Advertising wear-out: The reduction in attention and retention
caused by overexposure to advertisements
STIMULUS GENERALIZATION
The inability to perceive differences between slightly dissimilar stimuli
In Pavlov studies, his dogs would salivate when they heard noises that
resembled a bell (keys jangling)
o EX: Product line and Form extension
Listerine mouth wash more flavours then different types
(Ex: mouth strips)
o EX: Look alike packaging
- Centrum tablets and Life brand Spectrum tablets similar
packaging
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STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION
The process that occurs when behavior caused by two stimuli is different,
as when consumers learn to differentiate a brand from its competitors
EX: Packaging is different FESTINA (watch brand) theres water in the
package which is very different and also shows that the watch is water
proof
INSTRUMENTAL (OR OPERANT) CONDITIONING
A form of learning in which voluntary responses come to be controlled by
their consequence
In operant learning the response is performed because it is instrumental to
gaining a reward or avoid a punishment
- EX: when the teacher gives you good feedback it encourages
you to participate more so that is operant conditioning
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