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Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 2500A/B

Gregor Reid – Mar. 1, 2013 Time What changed? - 650 million years ago - Bacteria, water, air & soil changed - 100 – 200, 000 years ago - Humans evolved: added the diet of raw & fermented meat, plants - 30 years ago - There has been no change in the human genome while the human microbiome has evolved and it is 150 times larger gene pool of microbes than the human genome - Our diet consists of processed and mass- produced foods; the water & food chains has been contaminated by chemicals GI Tract & Food  Stomach breaks down proteins  Small intestine absorbs sugars  Large intestine ferments whatever plant material is left over  Guts are relatively generalized monkey/ape guts  We have a special immune system, special brains, special hands but the guts have been ordinary for tens of millions of years  These ordinary guts have tended to be filled with fruit & leaves  As the gut bacteria met up with our agricultural diets, it began to compete with new microbial species that helped us live off wheat, barley, corn, rice, milk & sea weed Microbiome & Probiotics - It will impact agriculture, livestock breeding & bioprocessing - Produce crops resistant to diseases, insects & droughts - Farm animals becoming healthier, more productive & more disease resistant - More nutrition is produced - Biopesticies - Edible vaccines incorporated into food products - New Environment cleanup uses for plants like tobacco Five Reasons to Optimize Our Microbiome 1) Reproductions 2) Breast Cancer 3) Diabetes 4) Mental Health 5) Heart Health Probiotics  Live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host  Process: 1) Strain identification by
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