Jan 11 - Innate Immunity - Part 1.docx

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Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 2500A/B
Kelly Summers

Jan 11 - Innate Immunity – Part 1 - two main types of immune responses: o innate o adaptive o also have passive – not your own immune system, one that you acquired from a donor (plasma bag) or from maternal antibodies when you’re born - two main defenses of immune system: o cells o soluble proteins - innate immunity is the first line of defense against a pathogen o activated immediately to destroy pathogen – it is constantly ready o effective at stopping majority of pathogens at early stage - properties of innate immunity: o inherited from parents – you are born with it  everyone has the same innate defenses = well conserved in evolution o as vertebrates, we also have adaptive immunity o always initiated when pathogen contacts body o responds immediately to pathogen o no memory  adaptive immunity remembers pathogen  innate doesn’t remember  same immune response to identical pathogen with each exposure = non-adaptive - innate immune defenses o barriers  block pathogen entry into tissues (first line of defense)  modes of pathogen entry into the body:  RESPIRATORY TRACT (BREATHING) – you inhale into lungs  SKIN (WOUND) - injured skin – ex, you cut yourself or get a hangnail  GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT (INGESTION) - digestive system – GI tract – ex, eat contaminated food (food poisoning)  REPRODUCTIVE TRACT – sexually transmitted  Main barrier that prevents pathogen entry = epithelial cells (endothelial cells line blood vessels)  Salivary gland duct  Gal bladder – simple columnar epithelial cells  Bladder – hard for pathogen to break through  mechanical barriers – expelling/flushing out pathogen  ex, coughing, sneezing, vomiting, diarrhea, tears (has enzymes), saliva (has enzymes)  chemical barriers –  ex, fatty acids on skin (skin has keratin), bacteria can’t survive in low pH (stomach and vagina)  microbiological barriers -  if pathogen comes in contact with epithelial cells, this activates epithelial cells to secrete anti-microbial enzymes = natural antibiotics that destroys cell wall of pathogen  antibiotics kill bacteria = pathogenic bacteria + bacterial microflora  additional barrier  use up nutrients within environment to starve out pathogenic bacteria  very bad idea to take too much medicine/antibiotics because it kills all bacteria – can kill pathogenic, but also commensal  see slide 10 o Cells  rapidly eliminate pathogens that enter tissue o soluble molecules  rapidly eliminate pathogens that enter tissue - if innate immune system is unsuccessful: certain innate cells instruct adaptive immune system to el
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