Immunology Notes Summers.docx

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Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 2500A/B
Kelly Summers

Lecture 10 Immunology IntroductionNumber of pathogens that cause serious human infections208 viruses538 bacteria317 fungi287 worms57 parasitic protozoaAnother Role for the Immune SystemTo repair wounds and remove dead tissueswhenever you have a cut immune system help to form scabs fibrosis and we get inflammation Another role removing dead tissue cells so we cant get development of autoimmune diseases from damaged tissue cells If no immune system we would only survive for a few days because of wound infections We wont be able to destroy pathogens If that bacterium is a external threat is it going to develop infection or is it microbiota Immune system has to decide on thatAllergens not a threat to us Its harmless They are environmental antigens like pollens They dont cause diseases just allergic reaction for some people who are sensitive to the allergens They will respond strongly to itInternal Threat cancer All cells in our body have a certain life span Over time they become damaged cant function properly They are destroyed by the process of apoptosiscells committing suicide in a regularly manner Its very controlled cell death a normal part of your cells life span When it gets abnormal its cancer They multiply very rapidly they dont undergo apoptosis they dont die just keep multiplying and growing This is an internal threat to the immune system In the pancreas Red stained insulin Immune system kills insulinbeta cell If the persons immune system thinks its own cell is a threat it will attack its own tissue autoimmune diseasesGreen glucagonBlue nuclei 2 Immune systems innate and adaptive humoralantibody responses and cellmediated regulated by T cells Adaptive immunity components defense mechanisms using antibodies They remember the pathogens after you get vaccinated when youre exposed to pathogen adaptive immune system will recognize and memorize that pathogen whereas your innate immune system doesnt memorize that pathogen Thucydides History of the Peloponnesian War thThe concept of immunity from disease dates back to the Greece in 5 century BC by Thucydides in reference to Athenians who had become immune to the plague He stated that the sick and the dying were tended by the pitying care of those who had recovered because they knew the course of the disease and were themselves free from apprehensions For no one was ever attacked a second time never at least fatallyPeople who were infected with this bacterium Yersinia Pestis were protected from subsequent exposure to that bacterium Adaptive immune system remembered that pathogenTypes of Immune Responses 1 Innate aka natural non specific 2 Adaptive aka acquired specific 3 Passive transient immunity shortterm immunityPassive ImmunityProvides immediate short term immunity less than a yearImmunity is acquired from another individual via the transfer of antibodiesHow you get this is through the transfer of antibodies from a donorArtificial get antibodies in a clinic treat many things immunodeficiency because of chemotherapy etc it boosts immunity by giving antibodies from donors Its the donors antibodies that give them the immunityRabies if you get bitten by animals and have not got a rabies shot before or its expired the shot lasts about 10 years you need to go to get vaccinated with antibodies which are specific for the rabies virusesRubella purified antibodies specific for the rubella virus important for pregnant women suspected of having Rubella It causes birth defect to the fetusAntivenom bitten by snake Its purified antibodies specific to that particular venom Natural transfer from maternal antibodies In a newbornPassive immunity is presentMaternal antibodies are transferred via o Placenta to fetus in utero wanes in 6 months o Breast milk to newbornInnate immunity is presentAdaptive immunity is undevelopedBabys born with passive immunity also got innate immunity but their adaptive immune system is undeveloped They have those cells but they need to develop them So we vaccinate them so they can develop adaptive immunity cells so they can remember the pathogens Through the placenta blood flow when the baby is born it has maternal antibodies Mother is the donor of passive immunity Its not the newborns own immunity This lasts for about 6 months After that the baby will develop its own
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