Virology notes.docx

80 Pages
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Department
Microbiology and Immunology
Course Code
Microbiology and Immunology 2500A/B
Professor
Kelly Summers

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Description
VirologyLecture1WhyisvirologyimportantPatient17yearsoldfemaleunvaccinatedtravelsfromIndianaUSAtoEasternEuropeandbackisdiagnosedbeinginfectedwithmeaslesvirusTransmittedinaerosolsthroughcoughandsneezesVaccinationhasmadediseaselessprevalentnonexistentinCanadaStillamajorproblemincertainpartsofSouthAmericaandAfricaMostinfectiouscontagiousvirusAnalysisofanoutbreakmeaslesvirusishighlycontagious94ofinfectedindividualswereunvaccinatedCostofStateofIndiana168000tocontainoutbreakLargestUSmeaslesvirusoutbreaksince1996PatientswerenotvaccinatedduetofearofadverseeventsfromvaccineWherecanwefindvirusesVirusesareeverywhereItssafetosaythateverybodyinthisroomhashadorhasavirusinfectionpastorcurrentWearealllikelyinfectedbyaherpesvirusforlifebecausevirusesinfectalllivingthingsMostlikelyweeatvirusesdailyinsectvirusesonvegetable1teaspoonofoceanwaterequals5millionvirusescalicivirusinfectionofwhalerashesgastroenteritisEachwhalecanexcrete1310viralparticlesperdayVirusfamilyisitalicizedCalicivirusisamemberinthecaliciviridaefamilyThiscausesdiarrheaandtheyexcretelotsofviralparticleseverydayOurowngeneticcodecontainsviralgenesorelementsViralgeneticsequencesintegratedintoourowngeneticmaterialForexampleendogenousretrovirussuchasHERVswhicharedifferentfromexogenousretrovirusessuchasHIVendogenousisinourgeneticmaterialwhereasexogenousisfromsomewhereelselikeHIVAbout10ofyourDNAisderivedfromretrovirusesTheseendogenousviralsequencesareREMNANTSfrominfectionsthatoccurredmillionsofyearsagobutarenolongerinfectiousYougetthisgeneticallyMostvirusesthatinfectusdonotcausediseasebecauseofthe3levelsDefenseMechanismsWehavebuiltinlevelsofdefensethatstopusfromgettinginfectedbyviruses3linesofdefensethatviruseshavetocrossAnykindofbarrierskinisintrinsicAcquiredimmunityisadaptiveimmunityAllvirusesarenotevilEx1goodrelationshipspolydnaviruseswaspsandcatepillarsWaspslaystheireggsinsidealivinginsectlarvaWhenfemalewaspdepositseggsinsideacaterpillarshealsodepositsherpolydnavirusvirionsInnateimmunesystemoflarvawouldnormallykilltheeggpreventingitsdevelopmentWaspgenescarriedbythepolydnavirusvirionssuppressthisinnateimmuneresponseItsintegratedintoanotherhostgeneticmateriallikeendogenousretrovirusExpressingpolydnavirusproteininthelarvaEx2goodvirusavirusthathelpsafungusFunguscurvulariaprotuberatepermitsplantsurvivalHoweverfunguscannotgrowatT50degreesfungalthermotoleranceismediatedbythecurvulariathermaltolerancevirusCThTVDichantheliumlanuginosumplantgrowsingeothermalsoilsattemperaturesover50degreesCelsiusTheseconditionsarefoundatYellowstoneNationalParkInorderforthistohappenthefungushastobeinfectedbyavirusCThTVEx3GoodvirusavirusthatmakesnicerflowerstulipomaniaorthefirstdocumentedeconomiccrisisHollandinthe1600sexperiencedaneconomicupswingFreedomfromSpainBubonicplaguehadkilledthousandinHollandHoweverthisresultedinincreasedwagesinsurvivorsTheDutchwouldspend3000guildersforasinglebulbbelievedtoproducethebeautifulrareandcollectionitembrokentulipTulipinvestingtulipspurchasedinadvancewiththepromiseofbreakingahighlyspeculativemarketBythemid1600sthetulipmarketcrashedleavingmanypeoplebankruptThestudyofvirologydeterminedthatapotyvirusTulipbreakingvirusTBVresultsinthepattern
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