Course Intro + Basic Concepts of Immunity

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Western University
Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 3300B
Rodney Dekoter

LECTURE 1: COURSE INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS IN IMMUNITY Learning Objectives for the Course  To learn about the “building blocks” of the immune system: o Cells o Molecules (intracellular, transmembrane, extracellular) o Pathways of cell to cell communication o Pathways of intracellular communication o Genes and gene regulation  To learn how these building blocks interact to function as a system that opposes infections  To learn how the immune system develops during human ontogeny  To learn how important examples of how immune system malfunction leads to disease  To learn how examples of how immune function can be manipulated in our favor to combat disease Immunology  Infections – cold, flue, parasites, etc.  Inflammation  How vaccines work and whether they are necessary or not  Allergy and hypersensitivity  Organ transplantation – how organs are tolerated, or rejected  Diseases caused by the immune system – rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, diabetes, MS, etc. Lecture 1 Learning Objectives 1. Understand how pathogens cause harm 2. Understand how our immune system recognizes pathogens versus self 3. Learn key concepts: antigens, self and non-self, danger and PAMPs Where Pathogens are Found  Extracellular o Interstitial spaces, blood, lymph  Bacteria, protozoa, fungi, worms, viruses o Epithelial surfaces  Bacteria, worms, fungi  Intracellular o Cytoplasmic  Viruses, bacteria, protozoa o Vesicular  Bacteria, fungi How Pathogens Create Damage  Direct mechanism of tissue damage by pathogens o Exotoxin production – toxins whose purpose is to aid a pathogen in invasion of the body o Endotoxin production – accidental damage, are not produced as a deliberate way of promoting infection o Direct cytopathic effect – damage done by pathogen leads to cell death  Indirect mechanisms of tissue damage by pathogens o Immune complexes o Anti-host antibody o Cell-mediated immunity Innate VS. Adaptive Immunity  Innate immunity – immunity derived from non-antigen recognition of pathogen and “passive” mechanisms like barriers  Adaptive immunity – immunity specifically directed against antigens  We separate the innate and adaptive immunity to make understanding the immune system easier – this division d
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