Immunology Notes

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Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 3300B
Rodney Dekoter

Immunology NotesSept 812 Antibodies are proteins that bind to antigens They are produced by differentiated B cells in response to infection or immunization and bind to and neutralize pathogens The immune system is dangerous because it produces reactive chemicals poreforming proteins antibodies and cellular responses But it needs to be because of pathogens The body protects against extracellular pathogens that are found in the interstitial spaces blood and lymph by using complement phagocytosis and antibodies The body protects against extracellular pathogens found on epithelial surfaces by using antimicrobial peptides and antibodies Intracellular pathogens invade immune cells and survive in either vesicles or the cytoplasm The infected cell is attacked by NK cells of innate immunity or cytotoxic T cells of adaptive immunity Nkcell or Tcell activity activates macrophages and induces them to kill pathogens that are living inside vesicles Pathogens directly cause tissue damage by producing exotoxins act at surface of host cells and endotoxins trigger phagocytes to release cytokines Many pathogens are also cytopathic meaning they directly damage the cells they infect Pathogens indirectly cause tissue damage The cell causes damage by trying to protect itself An adaptive immune response to the pathogen can form antigenantibody immune complexes that activate neutrophils and macrophagesAntibodies can crossreact with host tissue And Tcells can kill infected cells All of these have some potential to damage the hosts tissues Ehrlichs side chain theory Living cells have side chains These side chains can link with a toxin like a lock in a key When a pathogen releases toxins and the cell is under threat the cell grows additional side chains to bind the toxin These side chains are shed or broken off to become the antibodies that circulate throughout the body
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