Immunology Notes

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Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 3300B
Rodney Dekoter

Immunology NotesNov 1712 Inflammation may cause cancer Many chronic inflammatory diseases increase the risk of cancer at the site of inflammation Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species ROSRON can mutate DNA ROS immune system product can generate many mutated DNA bases Inflammation infection and cancer Chronic inflammation infection or other can lead to cancer An example is the bacteria helicobacter pylori which causes stomach ulcers Some viruses oncovirus directly cause cancer Examples are epsteinbarr virus kaposis sarcoma virus human papilloma virus HPV Infections may cause up to 25 of all cancers Vaccination against these viruses can prevent these cancersth Cervical cancer and HPV Cervical cancer is the 5 most common cancer in women HPV serotypes HPV16 HPV18 HPV6 and HPV11 cause 90 of all cervical cancers HPV vaccines Guardacil protects against HPV16 HPV18 HPV6 and HPV11 It consists of empty no genome just protein virus particles containing HPV proteins Cervarix protects against HPV16 and HPV18 It consists of L1 capsular protein from each serotype plus alum as an adjuvant Vaccination reduced numbers of intraepithelial neoplasia CIN 2 or adenocarcinoma in situ AIS that were due to HPV Tumours are chronically inflamed Tissues with no cancer have no immune cells present In precancerous lesions you can start to see macrophages and neutrophils In a tumour there are lots of immune cells and keratin skin tumour cells Tumour inflammation is caused by macrophages and neutrophils Tumour inflammation serves two purposes It drives angiogenesis to provide blood supply to the growing tumour And it creates a microenvironment which supresses Th1 responses Angiogenesis is required for tumour growth VEGF production leads to blood vessel growth which leads to
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