Immunology Notes

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Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 3300B
Rodney Dekoter

Immunology NotesNov 2412 Autoimmune diseases Broadly classified as systemic or organspecific Depends on the immune mechanism responsible It is possible to have more than one disease Systemic autoimmunity Rheumatoid arthritis is a type III hypersensitivity immune complexmediated disease Involves complement and FcR The autoantigen involved is rheumatoid factor IgG complexes Rheumatoid factor is an autoantibody antibody directed against ones own tissues RF and IgG join at Fc portion to form immune complexes RF is an antibody against an antibody complex 90 of patients with rheumatoid arthritis have the autoantigen IgG RF Autoantigens in SLE lupus DNA autoantigens involved are dsDNA ssDNA histones RNA autoantigens involved are Sm snRNP Ro SSA La SSB 30 of patients also have IgG RF Systemic lupus erythematosus SLE Is a type III hypersensitivity immune complexmediated disease The immune complexes become deposited on small blood vessel walls and they are proinflammatory There is complement and FcRmediated tissue destruction Tissues affected are kidneys skin muscles joints lungs heart brain Tissuespecific autoimmunitytype II hypersensitivity IgG against cell surface antigen Results in cell destruction complement or FcR and alteration of signalling or function receptor blockade or activation An example is autoimmune hemolytic anemia The autoantigen is Rh blood group antigens I antigen Autoantibodies IgG bind to red blood cells RBCs If RBCs contain antigens on their surface that antibodies respond to the blood cells will be destroyed IgG autoantibodies bind to a cellsurface antigen on RBCs and this causes RBCs to be cleared from circulation by uptake by Fc receptorbearing macrophages Phagocytosis occurs and the RBC is destroyed If IgM autoantibodies are bound to RBCs complement is activated and lysis and destruction of the RBC occurs Graves disease Type II hypersensitivity Antibodies bind to receptor for thyroidstimulating hormone on thyroid cells and this sti
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