Immunology Notes

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Microbiology and Immunology
Microbiology and Immunology 3300B
Rodney Dekoter

Immunology NotesNov 2911 Transplant immunology has been brought about by a need for transplants for endstage organ failure Transplant immunology is an unnatural teacher Involves major histocompatibility complex tolerance demonstration of the potency of the immune system in the absence of regulation In the absence of regulation of complement and the innate response hyperacute rejection occurs In the absence of negative selection acute rejection occurs Grafting Autograftself grafting ex skin graft ok for immune system Syngraftgenetically identical identical twins graft will immunologically be ok Allograftgrafting between different individuals Xenograftgrafting between species How to treat a dying but essential part of the body 1905first successful corneal transplant immune system doesnt recognize a foreign cornea because its not very vascularized 1940s50ssurgical success limited by rejection 1960simmunosuppressive drugs trialed successful transplantation demonstrated for 23 months 1970scyclosporine developed allows allografts to occur 1980smajority of transplants last greater than 5 years and donors become limiting factor Transplants are lasting longer but not forever Still dealing with rejection Hyperacute rejection Tissue destruction within minutes It is antibody mediated and antibodies initiate complement and FcRs NK cells The antibodies must be preexisting naturally occurring antibodies that are already present When a kidney is grafted into a patient with preexisting antibodies against donor antigens the antibodies bind vascular endothelium of the graft and initiate an inflammatory response The graft becomes purplecoloured because of hemorrhage of blood into it and because of the presence of deoxygenated blood Hemagglutination is used to type blood groups and match compatible donors and recipients for blood transfusion Agglutination
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