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Lecture 7

Media, Information and Technoculture 2000F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 7: Sound Film, Kathryn Bigelow, Proving Ground

Media, Information and Technoculture
Course Code
MIT 2000F/G
Daniel Robinson

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Week 7: Film History
Monday, September 26, 2016
11:19 PM
Original intentions for moving picture technology different than its later developments
Early American cinema is shaped by the social and historical conditions of its society
o Urbanization, immigration, etc
Canadian film emerges in response to the developments of American cinema
Sequential Photography
Etienne-Jules Marey,
Physicians, professor of natural science
Film real events and broke them down frame by frame to understand it better
Eadweard Muybridge, 1877 -> built on the ideas of Marey
Landscape photographer
High Speed photos
o Capture horse in motion through trip wire shutter triggers
o Wanted to see if horses move 4 legs ________
o 12 cameras around the horse track to capture a different moment of the horse (sequential
photos) When you look at them together they create an illusion of motion
Illusion of Motion through ordered pictures
Zoopraxiscope circular disc with images around it when its illuminated it projects images so
when it spins it creates an image of the horse in motion
Kinetograph and Kinetoscope
W.K.L. Dickson/Thomas Edison -> fathers of cinema
Kinetograph: moving picture camera, 1892 (Dickson did the work)
Kinetoscope: peep hole viewing machine, 1893 -> To use it people had to bend over (before
projection -> seeing the filmstrip itself)
Columbian Exposition, Chicago, 1893
Kinetoscope -> became very popular
35 mm b/w motion picture (15 sec)
Silent short films, lots of movement
Dancers, acrobats, prize fighters, vaudeville performers
Ediso studio -> Tar paper Shack in New Jersey (first film studio)
Initially very popular (actors want to see themselves being captured even though there was only
15 seconds) for wealthy people
Disappear by 1900
A lot of thigs thee seeig is soethig the a see do the steet lie
Edison bragged about 3-D, colour film but he got everyone excited but let everyone down
when it came out as a 15 second short black and white film
Individual experience, not communal
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Inventing the Projector
Francis Jenkins/ Thomas Armat
o Basic principle, 1885
Auguste & Louis Lumiere -> came along with the first projector
o Cinematograph in Paris, 1895
o Wokes leaig Luiee Fato
o First public display
o Aial of a Tai at a “tation
Showings: Phase One, 1895-1905
Vaudeville -> stageshows
o Movies as novelty acts
o Eetuall used as hases between shows, or beginning and ends)
o Were not story driven
o At first very well liked but over time, quality goes down of films and people lose interest in
real life aptue ad stats to use as hases get id of audiee i the theates fo the
next show or to close, etc
Penny Arcades
o owners buy/rent projectors
o regular film screenings
o Builds fan interest, film fans will start to go around to see different films
Traveling shows
o itinerant exhibitors
o tent shows
o Early example of movie theatres, people pay ad admission
Nickelodeons (1905-1918) -> film theatre, charges a nickel to get in
Films Only
o continuous showings
o Looping the same films over and over, stay as long as your want
o 1907: 3000 theatres, 1914: 18,000 theaters (US)
o 7 mil daily admissions
Longer films
o 10-15 minutes (originally 1-2 minutes)
o one-reel westerns, melodramas
o Production companies start to film, bigger budgets, longer films
Nickelodeon: Audience Growth -> people who saw were working class or immigrants
1. Urbanization
o Early 1900s, huge growth in cities
o Close proximity, walkable distance
2. Industrialization
Major development in factory jobs
More Disposable Income
About double the amount
More Leisure Time
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