Original intenions for moving picture technology diferent than its later developments. Early american cinema is shaped by the social and historical condiions of its society: urbanizaion, immigraion, etc. Canadian ilm emerges in response to the developments of american cinema. Eienne-jules marey: physician, professor of natural science. Eadweard muybridge, 1877: landscape photographer, hired to study animal moions. Take photographs of a troing horse cause they wanted to know if horses lited all four legs when they trot: sequenial photos together create a sense of moion. High speed photos: capture horse in moion through trip wire shuter triggers. Illusion of moion through ordered pictures: zoopraxiscope: a circular disk invented by muybridge that allowed it to be spun to create a moion ilm. W. k. l dickson/thomas edison: edison was more interested in phonographs than images. Columbian exposiion, chicaga, 1893: columbians make good cofee. Decided they could use sound to accompany photos. Edison studio: called the black maria, aka the tar paper shack.