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Lecture 8

Media, Information and Technoculture 2200F/G Lecture Notes - Lecture 8: Deal With The Devil, Digital Library, Online Editing


Department
Media, Information and Technoculture
Course Code
MIT 2200F/G
Professor
Kane Faucher
Lecture
8

Page:
of 4
MIT 1700 Lecture Week 8 March 1, 2011
Week 8: Information and the New Library
-Key Points
-Birth of the Personal Computer
-Search and find Utopia
-Amazon, POD, rejection of Dewey
-Meta-tagging, filtering, hand-clustering results
-Google Books and Digitization: A Faustian pact with libraries
-UPC, RFID, ISBN
-Information Management
-drastic changed in how we access info came in 1960’s/70’s
Allan Kay
-Personal computers should be at a price point for average consumers
-Computer as a ‘meta-medium’
-Democratizing the technology
-Standardize production like Henry Ford to make computers accessible
-Ford wanted to do this for the money, Kay had the peoples’ interests at heart.
-Make computers the medium of information exchange
-ARPA has been receiving funding from the US Government. Congress put law in place that
said that funding would only be given to things for National Defense.
-They didn’t realize that computing in general can help defense.
-Kay said that corporate and state interference shouldn’t happen here. He saw computers as a
kind of Public Sphere.
-Bring computing to the people.
-How we organize information is important. We need to find efficient ways of organizing to
make it useful though.
-The more information we have, the harder it is to find.
Search Woes
-Implicit vs. Explicit Information Result
-Junk Sites
-Profit Motives may be the hierarchical model
-Contempt for the expert - Google M.D
-Will crowdsource tagging help?
-We use referential language when we write/speak.
-Our search engines have no way of turning up referential terms though, unless
someone tags it. So there is a lot of information out there that we won’t be able to find.
-How can we find stuff that isn’t explicitly referenced?
-We are no longer passive, we are producers and consumers of the Internet.
-We can tag and produce content with meta-data descriptors. We do this in personal life
with facebook tagging and commenting.
-Crowdsourcing: NASA has millions of pictures that need to be sifted through
and tagged, so that have the public help them. You become the average
astronomer.
-Another form: online editing, revising, Wikipedia. But a Wiki article can have
misinformation/disinformation, and can never be fully complete and can be
changed by anyone.
MIT 1700 Lecture Week 8 March 1, 2011
-How can we discern what is relevant and true?
-Mills’ Marketplace of Ideas - we reject the bad so we can embrace the true.
-Polarizing around opinions so we may disregard the grey area of a subject and only focus on
the black and white.
-The quantity of information put out by global warming deniers may persuade you just
based on quantity, not quality.
Contempt For Expert
-We seek out information that supports our views like Google M.D. which creates the issue of
self diagnosis
-We make Google tell us what we want to hear.
Too Many Books (Library of Congress)
-Has 150 million items, 50 million books
-7000 new books each day, sent to 400 cataloguers
-300 000 subject headings, 8 000 new ones created every year.
-Problem:
-first order organization issue of space
-very expensive to maintain
-only exists in one place
*We need a new way of organizing books: Amazon
Amazon’s Library
-Clustering results by sales and customer lists.
-Metadata provided by reviews, associated content
-Subgenres can be infinite and created by users
S.R Ranganathan
1. Books are for use
2. Every reader has his or her books
3. Every book has his or her readers
4. Minimize on time of readers and library staff
5. Library is a growing organism
Facet Based Organization
-5 Facets of organization
-personality
-matter
-energy
-space
-time
-Predicts ability of computers to make information trees.
-New digital order requires flexible/versatile metadata system
-Lists and nesting
-We nest our lists according to space, time, type.
-Organization planners are big business
-Most personal electronic devices come with pre-installed organization apps/software
-Use hashtags to tag our tweet on Twitter
MIT 1700 Lecture Week 8 March 1, 2011
Filtering and Gatekeeping
-Does the web mean an end to filtering mechanisms between what is good and bad?
-Citizen Journalism: issues of accountability and truth and responsibility by journalists not
shared by citizen journalists.
-Overall value is driven down when everyone can publish, everyone can start a blog.
-E-books Facilitated an ability to carry 1000s of books with us but books are machines. It won’t
cost you lots of money to replace a book but it will cost you to replace the machine.
Book Digitization
-Copyright infringement
-Hasn’t resulted in lowering physical book production
-Works of merit may not always surface
-Screen readings may create false expectations of text size.
-A glut of works-in-progress.
-Screen reading privileges shorter over longer works.
-Developments in technology may render current digital platforms obsolete.
-Increase in supply and availability a downward pressure on demand and value.
*We may not value things (books) that are really easy to get now.
Google Books
-Project Gutenberg
-30 000 books open for public domain
-All books are added to archive, not defying copyright law
-Protect their information without making any profit
-Books are copied by hand.
-Google Books
-Can scan 1000 pages an hour, has 15 million books which is 10% of all books ever, in
only 7 years.
-Does books that are still under copyright law.
-Issues
-Privacy - must sign in, not respected
-Monopoly control
-Censorship
-Hidden taxes on blank CDs/DVDs to makeup for loss of money in music industry due
to illegal downloading
The Faustian Pact
-Digital libraries may not provide proper context for books
-May be entirely organized for commercial purposes
-May reduce demand on physical libraries
-Search results may be biased
Uniform Product Code
-Joseph Woodland and Bernard Silver, in use by 1974
-No relational meaning to us
-Information, organization, Management
-replaced by…
Radio Frequency ID Tags
-Cost savings