In 1405, all knowledge came from the bible and aristotle (died 1700 years before) Knowledge economy was controlled and operated by 10% of european pop. that was literate. Info. was hoarded and safe guarded by the church. Only the wealthy/church could afford to purchase books. Before 1450 a book was an investment that would cost a lot (more than a bmw today). An avg. book would take 8 cows to make (cow skin used as paper ) Someone had to be paid to write/copy the book (monks). Monks would write notes in the margins sometimes; this is the closest they got to writing their own book. Marginalia: something that is of lesser importance; a side topic (notes in margins) The catholic church used evocative imagery to carry out information in a medium that could be understood by the illiterate. The church has a monopoly on information: they had literacy and cash. Therefore, the church was able to control the message.