October 2 Readings/Class Notes – Theory
Using roman numerals to represent scale degrees:
Roman Numerals - Major: (ca. 1802) I ii iii IV V vi vii^o
Figured Bass: 1602
– did not emerge together
Principles of Voice Leading:
1. Complete chords sound best. You may omit the 5 of a triad, but not the 3 rd
(3 determines if it is major or minor). Don't omit the 1 . Don't have too
many 3rds (generally, no more than one).
2. Double the most stable tone of a chord. Do not double the leading tone in V
or vii^o, because they want to rise to the tonic – will create parallel octaves.
3. Except for the bass and tenor, the distance between adjacent voices should
not exceed and octave.
4. Strive for smooth, predominantly stepwise motion in the upper parts; the
bass may leap around.
5. Avoid parallel unisons, octaves, and perfect fifths.
6. Avoid hidden octaves between outer voices (except where the soprano
moves by step).
7. Avoid voice crossing and voice overlap.
8. The melodic augmented 2 ndis forbidden.
Tonic – 1 3 5 Dominant. V = 5 7 2 (4)
1. Doubling in I and V: root is best, 5 is next