Mar 8 – Music in the 16 Century: Sacred Vocal Music
Divide/Conflict: Protestant and Roman Catholic Music
Why? Sacred vocal music sung in the church.
– Leader of the first Protestant movement
– Musician – lute, flute, sang, composed. No problem with music (or
polyphony) in the church
– When met with troubles, he wanted to bring them to the authorities.
Eventually, he made them public because he wanted change.
– Wanted to encourage congregational involvement through music. He
wanted to bring the people back to the fundamentals of music. Patterned a
lot of his music and liturgy off the Catholic church. Not completely new –
based off many years of tradition.
– Creates chorales as a result of this desire.
– Definition: hymns, sung in vernacular by the congregation, mostly formed
from preexisting melodies
– Congregation expected to sing with the soloists – audience participation so
embedded in the chorales.
– eg. 6-1 pg 166
– Chorales: one main melody but can be harmonized, like hymns in church
Luther on Muisc
– No issue with chorales being harmonized/elaborated on musically
– Box pg 168: Luther on music. “Music is a gift of God, not a gift of men”
– “Next to the Word of God” music “deserves the highest praise”
Addressing the Ideas that Protestant Music is necessarily reserved and restrictive
– In Dulci Jublio
– First found on a manuscript from 1400
– 1533: published as a German Protestant chorale melody. 1545: another
verse added (possibly by Luther)
Calvin and Zwingli
– John Calvin and U Zwingli also led Protestant movements
– Less happy about music in the church
– Calvin only allowed music as accompanied psalm singing. Zwingli didn't
allow music in church at all.
In England, Henry VIII
– Church of England: result of power-struggle of Henry VII and the Pope
– Current European Protestant movements provide a model for H