Music 1710F/G Lecture Notes - Johann Adam Hiller, Staccato, Parataxis
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November 14/16 Readings/Class Notes – History
The Classical and Romantic Eras
–Italian comic opera style – received with pleasure by audiences. It gave
musical expression to many of the new attitudes of the Enlightenment.
1710: The rise of Italian comic opera begins (starts the Classical era)
1803: Beethoven composes his third symphony (Eroica)
1900: Many new musical trends emerge
How do Romantic musical aesthetics differ from the aesthetics of Classicism?
“...The aesthetic 'expression' that arose during the age of sensibility and Sturm
und Drang treated the composer as a 'subject' voicing his own thoughts”
–Differs from Baroque. Classical = communication, similar to speech. Late
18th century – no longer an artisan expressing, but they are doing their own
–Romanticism: outpouring of feelings
Johann Adam Hiller, 1768
“Comic opera is not precisely the best school for singers; but it has become the
best for today's sonatas – all, nowadays, borrow something its style.”
–People were aware that modern instrumental style borrowed from comic
Intermezzo: a short comic opera performed between the acts of a longer, serious
–Comic opera begins as this and develops
–Moments of reflection in comic opera – psychological character in the music
which breaks the music into thoughts of the character
–Two opposing forces of male and female characters sing together
Mozart K. 385 (“Haffner” Symphony), 1782
–Fast notes in a major key, tonic/dominant harmonies form a simple texture
–Two different characters in the text. First four bars in lower range followed
by next bars in stacatto in higher range; eighth notes.
Tension b/w deep harmonic structure and highly fragmented (paratactic) in the
melody. Melodic level held onto by harmonic form.