Music 1711F/G Lecture Notes - Musica Enchiriadis, Organum, Counterpoint

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6 Feb 2013

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Jan 28 - Polyphony to 1300: Organum
Polyphony is difficult to find out when it began
Late 9th century -
Another type of troping – vertical troping. Book: “vertical troping”
First written down at the end of the 9th century – musical instructional book
from Eastern France: The Musica Enchiriadis: discusses organum
*Organum: “Instrument or harmonic working”. Associated with today's
Parallel Organum
Musica Enchiriadis – shows how the Vox Organalis might hold the same pitch
as the starting of the Vox Principalis until it is a fourth or fifth away, and
then start the parallel motion eg. 2-3, page 61
Pitch signs used in the eg. In the M.E. Shows music theorists are already
thinking about stratified pitches – image on pg 61
One of the 1st books to notate organum: Winchester Troper (1000)
Different Types of Consonance
Ad organum faciendum – two rules
1. Vox organalis should always be above the plainchant
2. Two voices should move in contrary motion when leaping
Now there are two independent melodic lines, forming intervals at every
step: counterpoint.
Music Theorists categorize and organize intervals
Perfect consonance: intervals expressed as a ratio: octave, fifth, and fourth.
Important cadences must use these
Imperfect consonance: the third and the sixth
Melismatic Organum
Vox organalis sings many rapid pitches for one every one pitch in the vox
First place where melismatic organum is sung in the abbey of St. Martial de
Six Rhythmic modes: pg 65
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