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Music 1711F/G Lecture Notes - Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, Psalms

Course Code
Music 1711F/G
Kate Helsen

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Mar 8 – Music in the 16th Century: Sacred Vocal Music
Divide/Conflict: Protestant and Roman Catholic Music
Why? Sacred vocal music sung in the church.
Martin Luther
Leader of the first Protestant movement
Musician – lute, flute, sang, composed. No problem with music (or
polyphony) in the church
When met with troubles, he wanted to bring them to the authorities.
Eventually, he made them public because he wanted change.
Wanted to encourage congregational involvement through music. He
wanted to bring the people back to the fundamentals of music. Patterned a
lot of his music and liturgy off the Catholic church. Not completely new –
based off many years of tradition.
Creates chorales as a result of this desire.
Definition: hymns, sung in vernacular by the congregation, mostly formed
from preexisting melodies
Congregation expected to sing with the soloists – audience participation so
embedded in the chorales.
eg. 6-1 pg 166
Chorales: one main melody but can be harmonized, like hymns in church
Luther on Muisc
No issue with chorales being harmonized/elaborated on musically
Box pg 168: Luther on music. “Music is a gift of God, not a gift of men
“Next to the Word of God” music “deserves the highest praise”
Addressing the Ideas that Protestant Music is necessarily reserved and restrictive
In Dulci Jublio
First found on a manuscript from 1400
1533: published as a German Protestant chorale melody. 1545: another
verse added (possibly by Luther)
Calvin and Zwingli
John Calvin and U Zwingli also led Protestant movements
Less happy about music in the church
Calvin only allowed music as accompanied psalm singing. Zwingli didn't
allow music in church at all.
In England, Henry VIII
Church of England: result of power-struggle of Henry VII and the Pope
Current European Protestant movements provide a model for Henry VIII to
found his own church.
After he died, a book of services for Church of England, in English, published
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