Music 1711F/G Lecture Notes - Huldrych Zwingli, John Calvin, Psalms
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Mar 8 – Music in the 16th Century: Sacred Vocal Music
Divide/Conflict: Protestant and Roman Catholic Music
Why? Sacred vocal music sung in the church.
–Leader of the first Protestant movement
–Musician – lute, flute, sang, composed. No problem with music (or
polyphony) in the church
–When met with troubles, he wanted to bring them to the authorities.
Eventually, he made them public because he wanted change.
–Wanted to encourage congregational involvement through music. He
wanted to bring the people back to the fundamentals of music. Patterned a
lot of his music and liturgy off the Catholic church. Not completely new –
based off many years of tradition.
–Creates chorales as a result of this desire.
–Definition: hymns, sung in vernacular by the congregation, mostly formed
from preexisting melodies
–Congregation expected to sing with the soloists – audience participation so
embedded in the chorales.
–eg. 6-1 pg 166
–Chorales: one main melody but can be harmonized, like hymns in church
Luther on Muisc
–No issue with chorales being harmonized/elaborated on musically
–Box pg 168: Luther on music. “Music is a gift of God, not a gift of men”
–“Next to the Word of God” music “deserves the highest praise”
Addressing the Ideas that Protestant Music is necessarily reserved and restrictive
–In Dulci Jublio
–First found on a manuscript from 1400
–1533: published as a German Protestant chorale melody. 1545: another
verse added (possibly by Luther)
Calvin and Zwingli
–John Calvin and U Zwingli also led Protestant movements
–Less happy about music in the church
–Calvin only allowed music as accompanied psalm singing. Zwingli didn't
allow music in church at all.
In England, Henry VIII
–Church of England: result of power-struggle of Henry VII and the Pope
–Current European Protestant movements provide a model for Henry VIII to
found his own church.
–After he died, a book of services for Church of England, in English, published
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