Music 1711F/G Lecture Notes - Scientific Revolution, Counterpoint, New Idea
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Mar 18 – Prelude to the Baroque Era
Age of Absolutism
–Louis XIV (reigned 1643-1715) – the age of Absolutism in France/Continental
–Absolutism: royalty (king or queen) claims complete dominance over the
state. The people accept this due to The Divine Right of Kings – God
approves of the kingship, and the people must accept this – the person was
meant to be in the role.
–Versailles is a testament to his power
–Absolutism and the arts: kings have a lot of money, so they can pay artists,
musicians, architects etc. To create the absolute best art to impress the
people, diplomats from other countries, and to display wealth.
The Thirty Years' War
–1618-1648. Mostly on Germanic lands – France, Spain, Sweden, Denmark,
Holland, and H.R.E. States (Germanic)
–Begun – Catholic and Protestant conflict
–Sustained: territory (Hapsburg vs Bourbon)
–Effect: famine, disease, broken economy – the worst for Germany.
Revoking the Edict of Nantes
–France was 'ahead' after Thirty Years' war
–Edict of Nantes (1598): a peace deal b/w Catholics and Protestants in France
–1685: France revokes this edict
–Many Protestants (Huguenots) flee France for Protestant countries (Holland
and N America)
–Absolutism never takes hold
–Parliament works with Monarchy
–Struggle b/w the two: English Civil War (1642-1649) until Charles I died
–England ruled by Oliver Cromwell for almost 10 years
–Cromwell died, monarchy reintroduced/restored.
–“Glorious Revolution” (1688-9) pro-Catholic, absolutist-leaning James II
(leans towards Louis XIV's ideas) replaced by his daughter Mary and
husband, William of Orange – they reign together.
Public Support of the Arts
–In places where Absolutism doesn't work (England, Venice, Hamburg)
–Art now written for the public and paid for by the public. Not solely paid for
by the king anymore – art is now not just what the king does to make
himself and his kingdom look good.
–Music written for church or court or the public on the street.
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