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Music Lecture #1 An overview of what will be taught in the class, and important definitions that are needed for the course.

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Music 1170A/B
Peter G Schultz

← Main goals - present music of other cultures - get a set of concepts to look at music of any culture “the study of music in culture [and] AS culture” - what is culture? o A set of materials, behaviours, technologies, beliefs, values and aesthetic ideal o It is learned, passed on through generations o Not innate; o We need it to function competently in society - What is society? o Group of humans who have shared customs, interests, system of institutions - Summary o Society is the people, culture are the beliefs, rituals, values (you can create culture) What is music? - possible definition #1 o the art of putting sounds together in beautiful or pleasing arrangements o beautiful or pleasing arrangements of sounds, especially as produced by the voice or instruments  who can decide what is beautiful/pleasing?  Not always the goal to be beautiful/pleasing (i.e. punk music) - Possible definition #2 o Music is humanly organized sound  Music can be made by nature/birds  A lot less biased, much more broad, but humans must be involved - Possible definition #3 o Music is made up of socially acceptable patterns of sound  What is socially acceptable to a certain group of people might not be to another group - Possible definition #4 o Music is a category of humanly organized sound AND it is the creative process of organizing sound in some way different than speech (bonnie wade)  Not all are perfect, all definitions are problematic - Music: not a universal label - Saugeeta  implies not only music but dance as well Music-culture - a groups total involvement in music (Titon) o performance, listening, attendance, dress/attire, dance, behaviour summary - accepted music definition (#4) o music is a category of humanly organized sound AND not just sound but also the creative process of organizing that sound o *need to know what music culture is* ethnomusicology - study of music in culture and as culture - what do ethnomusicologist do? o What are people doing in a music culture o How are they doing it? (who do they play a certain instrument/chanting etc) o Why are people doing it in a music culture; what meanings are generated  They learn how people make music useful/meaningful to themselves Issues in ethnomusicology - how do you gather information? - Etic vs. emic approaches o Etic  to gather info as an outsider recording/observing performers; staying on the outside of the performance. Use of informants of consultants [someone that is a music maker] o Emic  act as an insider of the performance  bi-musicality (learn the styles of another music culture) by learning to play it, you would get insights that you could never get by sitting on the sidelines and listening [being part of the music] - Emic principles (not the same. The emic approach led to the principles) o Importance of fieldwork and transcription  i.e. go to Indonesia and spend time living in a community o music must be considered in its cultural context  cannot be divorced from its cultural context, cannot just look at the sounds or music score (or else you miss the meaning of the music) o music is always changing – your research is only a snapshot of a moment o music is similar to language  there are many music’s just as there are many languages  the different music’s have there own rules/vocabulary - there is no music that every single person on the planet understands - participant-observer approach o Ethnomusicologists mix etic AND emic approaches o you can learn something from both approaches approaches to avoid - evolutionary approach o tied to ideology – all human societies develop in the same way (start as simple and become more complex, and the more complex the society the more complex the technology) - ethnocentric approach o someone who thinks there own culture is superior to other cultures, or they may believe that a member of culture a) might look down on culture b) but culture c) is just as good as theres o judging another culture by your standards summary - etnomusicologists relied heavily on etic and emic approaches and principles - but both appraches are useful, so a misture of both approaches resulted in participant-observation model - ethnomusicologists avoid evolutionary and ethnocentric appraches universals in music - music is not a universal language, but it is a universal practice - all cultures have music (whether or not they recognize it as ‘music’) - all cultures have a special kind of vocal production different from everyday speech - all cultures have sound producing instruments - people can recognize a ‘melody’ (series of notes/pitches that have a recognizable coherent identity) - music is used to transform
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