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Music Lecture #9 Indonesian Music continued

Course Code
Music 1170A/B
Peter G Schultz

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Indonesian Music continued
-classic part of soft playing style in gamelan music is the presence of singers
ofemale soloists (pesindhen) – paid the most, considered the stars – group
of them, the women will either sing alone, or the group in unison
owilejeng will be an example of soft-playing music
osometimes the women are backed up by a male chorus (men are not
soloists, always sing as a group)
owomen get to improvise, men have to sing a certain melody
-various melody may be used for one text
What is patronage?
-Act of support or encouragement for an individual, group, business, institution
Who are patrons?
-The people supporting that group. Giving money, networking, getting them
-Direct financial support or extra PR
-Royal or aristocratic courts
-The everyday music consumers (acting as patrons if we buy tickets to a concert or
buy the CD)
-Historically seen as wealthy people providing a large amount of financial support,
but now individuals with not much money, but in groups of large numbers can act as
-Patrons might limit what a musician can do
oCreativity stifled, if no one is supporting it might not last for long
Gamelan patronage in central Javanese music: changes

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oi.e. 2 courts in Surakarta, 2 in Yogyakarta (Yogya)
o4 courts = result of Dutch colonial interference in local politics in 19th C
oThis period was seen as a golden age for the arts in Indonesia
Even though controlled by the Dutch, these courts were competing
with each other to show who is more power. One way was to act as
patrons, employing musicians, puppet masters etc. lasted until
oCourts are still active as patrons, but not to the same extent in the 19th C
oExterior – sometimes only one wall, detached roof to add an extra
shimmering of sound
oGamelan groups that were smaller; cheaper instruments and often served
Weddings, circumcisions, birthdays etc
Less expensive
-Indonesian government
oImportant after WWII (1945 Indonesian republic declared independent of
the Dutch)
oGov’t sets up state radio, television, hire gamelan musicans and have a
resident gamelan ensemble to perform on the radio/tv weekly
oHired shadow puppet/dancers to be broadcast
oWanted to help Indonesia, a lot of diversity, weren’t nationally Indonesian
– wanted to unite Indonesia. Give them a sense of national identity in a
variety of ways (music, dance, shadow puppetry)
Wayang Kulit
-1 type of puppetry found in central java
-Huge popularity
-Indonesia has been in love with puppetry for at least 1000 years
oWooden puppets, rod puppets, shadow puppets
-Wayang kulit is one form of shadow puppetry
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