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Pathology 3240A - Lecture 1 Notes.docx

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Pathology 3240A
Aaron Haig

Pathology 3240A Lecture 1 Notes: What is pathology  pathos - disease/suffering  the study of structural changes in cells tissue and organs that underlie disease What do pathologists actually do?  clinical and experimental pathologists  both look at tissue and diagnose disease Misperceptions of pathology  we actually use microscopes to look at tissue and disease to understand it.  theres a large lab component – process tissue to do testing. general pathology is the connecting point from the cellular science info to the dr.’s actually job – a link to the basic sciences role of the pathologys  diagnosis: examine biopsies and specimens  clinical support: guidance in treatment (eg. staging of cancer)  autopsy: determination of cause of death; forensic autopsies (medical & legal factors)  research: experimental pathology; mechanisms, complications & sequelae of disease; models of disease (animal or human tissue) techniques of pathology  gross examination (macroscopic) – choose diseased parts of the whole organ o Esophagus has smooth white lining o Stomach has yellow lining and digests the food o Usually a junction in between them with a nice clean line o You see there is something disrupting the line (a malignant tumour) o So we look under microcope and see the tumour  light microscopy – confirm the celluar dieases – ex tumor cells o can cytologic preparation – scrap off the cells and see them even closer  immunohistochemistry – antibodies tagged with a dye – use one that binds to cancer proteins – then yes it’s cancer. o immunofluorescence – same idea but shine with a light to see  electron microscopy – see cell structure, sub parts  molecular pathology the definition and causes of disease  Disease: the pattern of response of living rganisms to injury (CELLULAR INJURY) o We identify disease by the appearance of physical signs o these, however, are late findings, after action at the cellular level. (fever casued by it) o (cellular) injury as a result of environment or genetic insult o Cells are always being injured o when cells ail to adapt to the injury, or the adaptive mehanism itself can harm the cell Etiology - The cause of disease o Hepatic cirrhosis can be caused by o There are a number of etiologies o Like the heptits virus o Alcohol can cause it o Storage disorders - Think what the etiology is - There is a huge spectrum - If someone has head trauma, the etiology could be a motor accident - When you think etiology you have to think what thing has happened to cause the injury Signs and Symptoms Symptoms: - Patient tells you about a pain theyre having - Subjective evidence of disease, i.e what the patient tells you Signs - Seeing blood in the stool sample - It is OBJECTIVE evidence - Your exam to get objective evidence Like youre solving a mystery and you put both together to find out whats going on Pathogenesis - How things evolve - Development of given disease - Mechanism of disease - Someone comes in with a disease and you think how did it start and what steps happened leading to this final stage Complications - Secondary consequences of disease or procedure - E.g. post
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