What is pathology:
-Pathos = disease or suffering
-Logos = study
The study of suffering illness
The study of the structural and functional changes in cells, tissues, organs, that underlie disease.
What do pathologists do:
- clinical + exp pathology (lab), use variety of tech to diagnose, understand and define disease.
General pathology relies on basic sciences to translate things into clinical/practical aspect.
Role of pathologist:
-diagnosis: examine biopsies and specimens. Make diagnosis based on biopsies and specimens.
-clinical support: guidance in treatment (e.g. staging of cancer how far it has spread. It will dictate what your
treatment will be, prognosis, etc)
-autopsy (not used so frequently today): determination of cause of death (why treatment didn’t work, etc) ; forensic
autopsies (medical + huge legal factors – go to court and lead to prosecution)
-Research: experimental pathology; mechanism, complications & sequelae of disease; models of diseases (animal or
Techniques of path:
we go through this sequence of tools to make diagnosis. When something comes to pathologist, you do diff levels…
-most basic: gross examination (macroscopic) what you see with your eyes. Describe, look, and help go to next
-light microscopy take sections from gross exam, make slides, look under microscope. This is what pathologist do
most of the time when making diagnosis(can also use cytologic pathology take cells and smear it)then you can do
immunohistochem next step.
-immunohistochemistry take antibody that can recognize certain protein and it’s tagged to dye. If that protein is
present, then it will light up…i.e. if membrane glows, you know that protein is on the membrane. Same with
immunofluorscence…fluor dyes used
-electron microscopy look at parts of cell.
-molecular pathology sort of taken off now that we know genetic basis
Definition and causes of Disease I
Disease: the pattern of response of living organisms to injury.
-if sth has injury, it’s usually at cellular level. We identify disease by physical signs. We can’t tell whats going on in
cell but we know that ppl have runny nose and fever, etc…coughing up blood, etc…we use physical signs as
secondary event to identify disease.
-we identify disease by the appearance of physical signs
-these, however, are late findings, after action a the cellular level
-injury as a result of environment or genetic insult
-when cells fail to adapt to the injury, or the adaptive mechanism itself becomes harmful, disease results. Cells are
always being injured, so always repairing, adapting…but there are times when they can’t adapt or the adaptation
becomes harmful and this is when disease results
-the cause of disease: hepatic cirrhosis can be caused by (etiology of this can be) virus (hepatitis), alcohol, storage disorders, etc…
-head trauma e..g MVA motor vehicle accident
Signs and symptoms
-Symptoms: subjective evidence of disease, i.e. what the patient tells you “I am having abdominal pain”: valuable.
-Signs: objective evidence of disease e.g. blood in stool. Don’t need the patient to tell you.
-put symptom an signs together and this is how u categorize diseases
-the development of a given disease/how the disease evolves/the mechan