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School
Western University
Department
Pathology
Course
Pathology 3240A
Professor
Craig Hall
Semester
Winter

Description
Pathology of Neoplasia ­ cancer is diagnosed by microscope, nothing else ­ if something is removed, it must be sent to a pathologist o examination – infiltrating squamous cell carcinoma o resection margins were free  however secondary cancer in lymph nodes ­ five years later o developed short of breath o chest x ray showed metastatoc tumour in lung o gradually deteriorated and died o autopsy showed metastasis in lung, liver and bone ­ Epidemiology o Cancer is the leading cause of premature death in Canada o Next to heart disease, most common cause of death o 1 in 4 of all Canadians will die of cancer o 45% of men, 40% of women are expected to develop some type of cancer ­ Adaptation to Stress o Cell either stays alive or dies if injured  If alive, adapts to it o Atrophy  Shrinks in size o Hypertrophy  Cell increases in size o Hyperplasia  Cell increases in number o Metaplasia  Conversion of one differentiated cell type to another • Bronchial ciliated columnar epithelium to squamous  epithelium in smokers o Due to gastrointestinal reflux, epithelium changes to  intestinal epithelium (goblet cells) • Although it is a protective mechanism, there may be loss of  function o Dysplasia  Alteration in size, shape and organization of the cellular  components of a tissues  Features • Variation in shape and size of cell • Enlargement, irregularity, and hyperchromatism of nuclei  Disordered arrangement of cell  Significance • Dysplasia is a premalignant lesion o No invasion is present • Persistent injury may lead to dysplasia o Dysplasia in bronchial epithelium o Dysplasia in cervical epithelium  Earliest form of cancer • Hasn’t invaded yet  Nuclei are darker, bigger, cell shape different, etc.  ­ What is neoplasm? o Neoplasm is an abnormal mass of tissue  The growth of which exceeds and is uncoordinated with that of  normal tissue  Persists in the same excessive manner after cessation of the  stimulus which evoked the change • Once the stimulus ceased, irrelevant if it already started o Neoplasm – new growth – tumour o Oncology= study of tumours o Cancer is a general term for malignancy o Once tumour starts growing, still keeps growing o The neoplasms are classified according to tissue of origin and nature of the  tumour whether benign or malignant  Benign tumour • These tumours have suffix “oma” following tumour type • Some are named by architectural patterns whereas othersby  tissue type o Ex. Lipoma, fibroma, angioma • Exceptions: melanoma, lymphoma o Melanoma: skin tumour, extremely malignant o Lymphoma: lymphocytes, malignant • Adenoma o Originating in gland o Ie. Adrenal Gland Adenoma • Cystadenoma o An adenoma with cystic areas  Fluid filled spaced • Papilloma o With finger like projections • Polyp o Elevated mucosal lesions o Descriptive term  Malignant Tumour • Similar system • Malignant tymours of mesenchymal origin called  “sarcoma” (sar= fleshy) o Bone, muscle, fats, fibrous tissue, etc.  • Of epithelial origin called “carcinoma” • Adenocarcinoma o Glandular pattern o Producing Mucin  Glycoproteins  Creates cavity • Squamous cell carcinoma o Recognizable squamous cells • Fibrosarcoma o Sarcoma of fibrous tissues • Some tumours may show divergent differentiation o These are called “mixed tumours” o They can e
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